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Full text of "Community facilities "

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Alachua ' — ^ 

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1974 

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North Central Florida Regional Planning Council 




COUNCIL MEMBERSHIP 
1974 



OFFICERS 

Clayton C. Curtis, Chairman 

Robert J. Spence, Vice-Chairman 

Ralph W. Kluge, Secretary-Treasurer 




Jack Durrance 

Robert H. Cato 

Clayton C. Curtis 
Samuel N. Holloway 

Carnell C. Henderson 

E. G. Cann 



ALACHUA COUNTY 

CITY OF ALACHUA 

CITY OF GAINESVILLE 

CITY OF HAWTHORNE 
CITY OF HIGH SPRINGS 



Ralph Kluge 

Glenn DuBois 

James G. Richardson 

Robert J. Spence 
E. H. Petteway 



John M. Champion 
Wayland Clifton, Jr. 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS 

North Central Florida 
Health Planning Council 
Governor's Council on 
Criminal Justice - Region II 
Alachua County C. O. Morgan 

City of Gainesville Norman J. Bowman 

G. Alan Hardin 
Citizen Participation 
Committee 



W. T. Coram 



Charles F. Justice 
Philip J. Hughey 
Alan L. Csontos 
Roy E. Brewer 
Charles L. Kiester 
Jan E. McGee 
Tommie M. George 
Marilyn Crumley 
Ruby Marshall 
Terry Trussell 
Trevor D. Splane 
Mark Druash 



COUNCIL STAFF 
1974 

Executive Director 

Assistant Director 

Environmental Planner 

Regional Planner 

Regional Planner 

Health Planning Coordinator 

Executive Secretary 

Secretary II 

Bookkeeper 

Graphics Coordinator 

Planning Technician 

Planning Technician 



COMMUNITY 
FACILITIES 






% 




The preparation of this report was financed in 
part through a comprehensive planning grant from 
the Department of Housing and Urban Development. 



July, 1974 



North Central Florida Regional Planning Council 
Five Southwest Second Place 
Gainesville, Florida 32601 



i 

i 



1 



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"bibliographic data I 1- Report No. 

SHEET NCFRPC -74 - 005 



3. l^ccipi<...t's Accession Ni 



4. Title and Subtitle 



Community Facilities, 1974 



5- Report Date 

July, 1974 



6. 



7. Author(s) 



See #9 Below 



8. Performing Organization Rept. 

^'°- NCFRPC-74-005 



9. Performing Organization Name and Address 

North Central Florida Regional Planning Council 
Five Southwest Second Place 
Gainesville, Florida 32601 



10. Project Task )tork Unit Ni 



11. Contract Grant No. 

CPA-FL-04-29-1036 



12. Sponsoring Organization Name and Address 

Department of Housing and Urban Development 
661 Riverside Avenue 
Jacksonville, Florida 32204 



13. Type of Report & Period 
Covered 

Final 



14. 



15. Supplementary Notes 



16. Abstracts 

The Community Facilities Plan considers existing facilities and the 
projected need for new or expanded facilities and services within 
Alachua County and the municipalities therein, based upon population 
projections through the year 1990. Where applicable, existing state 
and national standards were utilized. The Community Facilities speci- 
fically considered include libraries, schools and the public safety 
sector including law enforcement, fire protection, emergency medical 
and emergency rescue services, and bikeways. Summaries of existing 
or on-going studies include Open Space and Recreation, Solid Waste 
Management and Water and Sewer Facilities. 



17. Key Words and Document Analysis. 17a. Descriptors 



17b. Identifiers /Open-Ended Terms 



Community Facilities (Libraries, Schools, Solid Waste Management, Water 
and Sewer, Open Space and Recreation, Bikeways, Fire Protection, Law 
Enforcement, Emergency Rescue and Emergency Medical; Existing Facilitie; 
Standards; Projected Needs) 



17c. COSATI Field/Group 



18. Availability Statement 

Available to the public through the North 
Central Florida Regional Planning Council 
5 S.W. 2nd PI., Gainesville, Fla . 32601 



FORM NTIS-35 (REV. 3-72) 



19. Security Class (This 
Report) 

UNCLASSIFIED 



20. Security Class (This 

Page 
UNCLASSIFIED 



21. 



No. of Pages 

190 



22. Price 



USCOMM-DC !4952-P72 



TABLL OF CONTENTS 



Abstract i 

Table of Contents ii 

List of Tables vi 

List of Illustrations vii 

List of Maps vii 

Summary of Recommendations 1 

Libraries 1 

Public Safety 2 

Bikeways 4 

Open Space and Recreation 5 

Scnools 6 

V^Jater and Sewer 9 

Solid Waste 11 

Introductions 13 

Libraries 22 

Existing Facilities 23 

Santa Fe Regional Library System 23 

Detailed Specifics 24 

Hawthorne 27 

Hign Springs 27 

Micanopy 28 

University and College Libraries 29 

University of Florida 29 

Santa Fe Community College 29 

Private and Public Schools 3 

Standards for Public Library Service 31 

Structures 31 

Physical Facilities 34 

Book Collection 37 

Bookmobiles 41 

Financial Resources 45 

Comparison: Existing facilities and standards . . 45 

1990 Plan 50 



11 



TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) 



Physical Facilities 51 

Gainesville Public Library 51 

Hawthorne 52 

High Springs 53 

Micanopy 53 

Alachua 54 

Newberry, Waldo, Archer, and LaCrosse 54 

Bookmobiles 55 

Book Collections 55 

Personnel 57 

Funding 57 

Public Safety 58 

Fire Protection Facilities 58 

Water Systems 5 9 

Fire Flow 61 

Objectives 61 

Standards 61 

Analysis 63 

Conclusions 65 

Recommendations 66 

V7ater Distribution System 67 

Objectives 67 

Standards 67 

Analysis 68 

Conclusions 68 

Recommendations 6 9 

Fire Hydrants 6 9 

Objectives 69 

Standards 7 

Analysis 72 

Conclusions 74 

Recommendations 7 5 

Communications 7 6 

Alarm Systems 7 6 

Objectives 77 

Standards 77 

Item Analysis 7 8 

Telephone 7 8 

Emergency Alarm Boxes 8 

Private Alarm Boxes .... 81 

Conclusions on Alarm Systems 8 5 

Emergency Alarm Boxes 8 5 



111 



TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) 



911 Emergency Phone Numbers 87 

Private Alarm Systems 87 

Recommendations 87 

Communication Headquarters 88 

Objectives 88 

Standards 89 

Analysis 90 

Conclusions 91 

Recommendations 93 

Fire Station Distribution 93 

Objectives 93 

Standards 94 

Analysis 94 

Gainesville Urban Area 94 

Smaller Communities 99 

Conclusions 102 

Recommendations 102 

Emergency Rescue and Medical Service 105 

Standards 106 

Analysis 108 

Conclusions 109 

Recommendations 110 

Police Ill 

Sheriff's Office Ill 

Conclusions 113 

Recommendations 114 

Bikeways 115 

Planning Considerations 115 

Existing Conditions 124 

Funding 126 

Recommendations 129 

School Facilities 132 

Methodology 132 

Analysis 133 

Trends ,■ . . 133 

Projections 134 

Optimum Size 135 

Location 136 

Site Location Criteria 136 

Open Space and Recreation 14 

Review of Existing Facilities 141 

State Parks in Alachua County 141 



IV 



TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) 



County Owned Recreational Areas 14 2 

Regional Parks 142 

District Parks 143 

Neighborhood Parks 14 3 

Special Use Facilities 145 

Gainesville Urban Area 145 

Alachua County Municipalities 145 

Special Use Facilities 147 

Recommendations 147 

Sources of Funding 150 

Federal Funding 150 

State Funding 151 

Environmentally Endangered Land Programs .... 152 

Local Funding 154 

Summary 155 

Implementation 156 

Major Open Space Systems 156 

Regional Parks 159 

District Parks 162 

Water and Sewer Facilities 16 6 

Water Facilities 167 

Sewer Facilities 169 

Solid Waste 174 

Solid Waste Collection 175 

Solid Waste Disposal 176 

Solid Waste Management 17 6 

Summary of Conclusions 178 

Drainage 181 



V 



LIST OF TABLES 



1. Population Projections, Alachua County, 1970-1990 20 

2. Gainesville, Public Library, Resources 24 

3. Annual Book Circulation Figures, Santa Fe 26 

Regional Library System 

4. Guidelines Determining Minimum Space Require- 37 

ments 

5. Experience Formulas for Library Size and Costs 39 

6. Per Capita Holdings, Florida Library Study 40 

Commission 

7. Distribution of Resources, 1990 56 

8. Municipal Fire Protection Ratings, Alachua County 60 

9. Required Fire Flow 62 

10. Standard Hydrant Distribution 71 

11. Distribution Standard for Engine and Ladder 96 

Companies 

12. Fire Station Location, Equipment and Manpower, 98 

City of Gainesville 

13. Fire Protection Equipment and Manpower, Alachua 100 

County 

14. Auto-Bike Accidents, Gainesville, 1973-1974 116 

15. Bikeway Costs 128 

16. School Endorsement Trends 133 

17. School Enrollment Projection 134 

18 . Change in School Enrollment 134 

19. Optimum Size of Schools by School Type 135 

20. Projected School Plans Need, 1980-1990 135 

21. County Owned Recreational Areas in Alachua 144 

County 



VI 



22. Recreational Areas, Gainesville Urban Area 14 5 

23. Recreational Areas, Alachua County Munici- 14 6 
palities 

24. Special Use Facilities 147 

25. 1980 Program and 1990 Plan 148-149 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

1-4. Bikeway Types 118-121 

5. Accident Comparisons 123 

LIST OF MAPS 

1. Gainesville Urban Area, 1990 21 

2. Extent of Coverage by Emergency Alarm 82 

Boxes, Gainesville Urban Area 

3. Fire Station Locations, Gainesville Urban 95 

Area 

4. Public Safety Districts, Alachua County 101 

5. Service Area, Fire Stations, Gainesville 103 

Urban Area, 1990 

6. Police Service Districts, Alachua County 112 

7. Bikeways, City of Gainesville 125 

8. Proposed Bikeways, Gainesville Urban Area 131 

9. Proposed School Locations, Gainesville 139 

Urban Area 

10. Proposed Major Open Space Systems and 161 

Regional Parks, Alachua County 

11, Service Areas, District Parks, Alachua 165 

County 



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SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS 



LIBRARIES 



1. A new central facility be constructed having 65,000 square 
feet of floor space, and the capability to expand by an 
additional 30,000 square feet as the need arises. 

2. Four branch libraries be established in the Gainesville 
Urban Area, similar to the proposed Northeast Coiranunity 
Center Library. Each branch should have approximately 
2,400-3,500 square feet of floor space and hold between 
eight and ten thousand volumes. The location should be 
determined by circulation trends of the bookmobiles, al- 
though a southeast branch is foreseen, and a branch on 
westside, possibly at or near Millhopper or Westgate 
Shopping Centers is also foreseen. The fourth location 
should be decided by circulation trends. 

3. A new large bookmobile be purchased to replace the current, 
older van and a multi-purpose van be purchased to service 
the branch libraries and book drops. Two large bookmobiles 
should be maintained and operated by the system at all times 
in order to provide the desired level of service. The 
intent is to have two large bookmobiles and a multi-purpose 
van within the system by 1990. 

4. Bookmobile service should be expanded to weekly stops. 

5. The number of volumes held within the system should increase 
by over 350,000 by 1990. In conjunction with the building 
of the new central facility, it is recommended that 202,000 



volumes be added to raise the total volumes held to 
300,000, or 2.5 books per capita. An additional 
163,000 volumes will be needed in the system by 1990 
to meet the established ALA and FLA standards. 

6. Branch libraries in the county should be established 
where there is evidence of sufficient citizen support 
to warrant a permanent facility. 



PUBLIC SAFETY 



1. The alternative proposals of the 1974 Water and Sewer 
Development Plan should be considered and acted upon 
by the respective communities, to insure that a water 
supply sufficient to meet the needs for domestic supply 
and fire protection services is available by 1990. 

2. Where exact knowledge of the size and location of water 
mains is lacking, efforts should be made to obtain this 
information, so that an evaluation of the water distri- 
bution system, particularly as pertinent to fire pro- 
tection, can be made. 

3. All new water lines should be a minimum of six inches in 
diameter, to meet the minimum standards for lines serving 
fire hydrants. 

4. Hydrants should be located so as to have a service area 
no greater than 160,000 square feet, or approximately 
400 feet apart. Shorter spacing is called for in high 
value districts. 



■2- 



5. Trailer parks should have fire fighting equipment 
in residence, prominantly located and marked. 

6. The county fire districting plan should be continued 
and supported, as a means of providing fire protection 
services to the smaller communities and the non-urban- 
ized areas surrounding them. 

7. Within the Gainesville Urban Area, seven fire stations 
be constructed, to house seven fire engine companies 
and two ladder companies. 

8. All fire protection services within the Gainesville 
Urban Area should be under one management, either 
through contractural agreement, or separate existence. 

9. The police service district concepts of the Alachua 
County Sheriff's Office should be supported as a 
means of providing police services to the smaller 
communities in the rural areas of the county. 

10. There be one emergency communications headquarters for 
all public safety offices in Alachua County. 

11. Emergency alarm boxes be extended to cover the entire 
Gainesville Urban Area, spaced every 500 feet in high 
value mercantile manufacturing and warehouse districts, 
and 800 feet along thoroughfares. 

12. Emergency alarm boxes should be installed at all public 
schools, terminating at the nearest volunteer fire de- 
partment. 



•3- 



13. Emergency alarm boxes should be installed at major 
intersections, and near access ramps to the inter- 
state highways. 

14 . Alarm boxes should be considered by the smaller 
communities for location in high value districts, 
industrial areas, and downtown areas. 

15. All commercial and industrial developments outside of 
the Gainesville Urban Area should be encouraged to in- 
stall private sprinkler and alarm systems. 

16. All public telephones should conspicuously display 

a sign explaining the location of that booth, identi- 
fying the nearest intersection. 

17. Volunteer fire departments receive emergency rescue 
training as a prelude to receiving emergency rescue 
vehicles . 

18. Emergency rescue vehicles be placed with all volunteer 
fire departments in the county. 



BIKEWAYS 



1. Bikeways should be constructed throughout the Gainesville 
Urban Area along major thoroughfares and connector streets, 
especially along routes leading to the area schools. 

2. Where possible, these bikeways should physically separate 
motorized and non-motorized traffic; where this is not 
possible, bikelanes should be lined and prominantly 
marked with signs identifying the nature and purpose of 

-4- 



those lanes. Raised reflectors should delineate bike- 
lanes from motorized traffic lanes. 

3. The smaller communities should create and convene 
bikeway advisory boards to investigate and determine 
the need for local bikeways . 

4. A similar bikeway advisory board should be established 

by the county to consider bikeways within the Gainesville 
Urban Area and potential scenic routes within the county. 
The intent is to have one Bikeway Advisory Board to 
serve the entire Gainesville Urban Area, City and 
County, inclusive. 

5. An active public awareness campaign should coincide with 
construction of bikeways, to insure that motorists and 
bicyclists know of the existence of, and purpose for, 
bikeways and bikelanes. 

6 . Stringent enforcement of traffic laws with regard to 
bicyclists. 



OPEN SPACE AND RECREATION 



1. An additional 402 acres of regional parkland will be 
needed by 1990 to meet current recreation standards 
resulting in four new regional parks. 

2. An additional 207 acres of district parkland to serve 
groups of neighborhoods will be needed. This represents 
eight new district parks, 3 twenty neighborhood parks, 
serving neighborhood areas, totaling an additional 106 
acres. Total park acreage needed is 715. 



•5- 



Recommendations 



1. Based upon the projected student enrollment for 

Alachua County public schools, the following number 
of new schools or their equivalents will be needed: 



1980 1985 1990 TOTAL 

Elementary 3+ 2+ 2+ 8+ 
Middle 1 + 12-1- 

Senior + 1 + 1-h 

(Note: The "-I-" sign present in every category signifies 
that expansion of some facilities will be necessary to 
accommodate the expected student population in addition 
to the new facilities indicated) . 

2. Specific site location criteria should be developed 
to aid in selecting future school sites. Listed be- 
low are several suggestions of items which should be 
considered. 



Land Use Plans - Consultation of the Comprehensive 
Land Use should be a prerequisite to school site 
selection. Schools should be located away from un- 
desirable environment, avoiding proximity to noise, 
hazardous and congested areas. When a school site 
is selected, the area should be protected from 
commercial encroachment, maintaining the area as 
residential. Zoning should also be used to control 
the density of development so that overcrowding of 
a particular school doesn't occur. 



-6 



Transportation Planning - Streets carrying heavy 
or fast moving traffic affect the location of new 
schools as well as the expansion of existing ones. 
Any long range building program must take into 
consideration proposed routes of streets and highways. 
Elementary schools should be located on residential 
collector streets that provide access throughout 
the residential area. Secondary schools should be 
located on arterial streets that serve much larger 
areas . 

Fire Protection - Consideration must be given to 
school location in relation to fire stations, distance 
from station to school and the time required for 
equipment to get there. Consideration should be 
given to the following: 1) installing sprinkler 
systems, 2) consulting the fire department on 
school buildings and site accessibility to fire 
equipment, 3) placement of stand pipes and their 
size and flow requirements, and 4) placement of 
emergency alarm boxes on school grounds. 

Parks and Playgrounds - The planning of joint 
school-park development would provide an adequate 
playground community gathering place, and serve 
as a buffer zone between the school and the surround- 
ing homes. Combining school with parks would elimi- 
nate the duplication of facilities, and assure the 
public that they were obtaining the most for their 
tax dollar. 

Airports - Proximity to airports should be avoided 
when selecting school sites. Special attention must 
be paid to the location of facilities so that they are 
not in the immediate approach-departure paths of planes 
The potential hazards are: 1) the noise level around 
the airport, and 2) the possibility of a crash which 
is most critical during take-off and landing. 

Utilities - These are of prime importance in selecting 
the school site. A check on these facilities should 
be made, prior to purchase, to determine the avail- 
ability of sewage and storm drainage facilities as 
well as water, gas and electrical connections. A 
site is considered inadequate if it is served by 
open drainage ditches and septic tanks. The site's 
accessibility to existing utilities is an important 
factor. The size and type of service needed, size of 
water main, electrical connections and gas lines 
should be calculated in advance. 



-7 



Soils - Selecting the school site should involve 
a detailed study of the type of soils and their 
drainage characteristics. The sites should be 
selected on the basis of the following information: 
1) is the site well drained, 2) is it subject to 
periodic flooding, and 3) is the soil suitable 
for buildings and playgrounds. 

Footings and foundations for buildings must rest 
on soils that are capable of supporting such 
facilities; the ability of the soil to support 
a dead weight without settling is most important 
in designing and constructing foundations. 

Determination of the topography of the proposed 
site should be made, as well as its proximity to 
flood or its presence within a flood plain area. 
Proposed sites should receive extensive review 
for environmental suitability, prior to purchase. 

Appearance - A prime consideration in the selection 
of a site is the area's natural beauty. The site's 
aesthetic qualities can be preserved and enhanced 
by careful planning. The buildings should be planned 
to blend with the natural amenities of the site. 
Creative site planning avoids large expenditures 
for leveling, grading, filling, and clearing. The 
site will obviously contribute to increasing the 
property value of the residential community it 
serves. Thus the site becomes a vital part of 
the teaching-learning process, providing a proper 
atmosphere for study and plan. 



-8- 



WATER AND SEWER 

1. It is recommended that the city of LaCrosse retain a 
suitable consulting engineer to compile a preliminary 
engineering report for a public water supply for that 
city. 

2. It is recommended that those communities lacking back- 
up or auxiliary wells, including an auxiliary power 
system, consider the installation of such facilities 
to insure a continued and adequate water supply under 
any circumstances. 

3. Each municipality should undertake, if not currently 
under way, a program designed to maintain continued 
system improvements, whereby old or deteriorating 
water lines, additional fire hydrants, and water 
supply equipment is replaced or kept in good repair. 

4. Those communities contemplating providing softened 
water for their citizens should investigate the 
economics of receiving softened water from the regional 
plant near Gainesville prior to construction of their 
own facility. 

5. In those communities where there are no adequate water 
system maps, every effort should be made to collect 
existing information from knowledgeable persons to record 
the location of lost water lines, etc., or as located 
noted so that master maps for future reference can be 
compiled showing the location of fire hydrants, the 
location and size of water lines, and other pertinent 
water system information. 



6. The cities of Waldo and Hawthorne need to have their 
preliminary engineering report updated and considera- 
tion given to financing new systems. At this time, 
and within the 1990 planning period, it appears more 
economical for individual treatment facilities to be 
located in these communities than to pump to a regional 
plant. 

7. Micanopy and LaCrosse need to have preliminary en- 
gineering reports prepared. 

8. For the communities of Archer, Newberry, High Springs, 
and Alachua, it appears somewhat marginal in annual 
costs between the alternative of individual treatment 
versus pumping to the Kanapaha Regional Plant. Con- 
sideration toward pumping to the regional plant should 
be given prior to the construction of individual plants. 

9. The smaller, rural unincorporated communities should 
give consideration to a preliminary engineering report 
to determine the feasibility of provisions of sanitary 
facilities and water facilities. The community of Mel- 
rose should give this serious consideration due to pop- 
ulation density and proximity to Santa Fe Lake. 

10. Since Newberry and Alachua have construction drawings 

under way for their systems, another consideration which 
might be given would be the installation of interim 
packaged plants that are portable. These portable plants 
could then be easily moved and reinstalled in other 
expanding areas of need when the existing users divert 
flow to the Gainesville regional plant. 



-10- 



11. Prior to construction, future wastewater treatment 

facilities should be reviewed by the Regional Planning 
Council and the Regional Utilities Board. 



SOLID WASTE 

1. Upgrading all accident safety programs to reduce losses 
due to lost work time and subsequent efficiency and 
economic losses. 

2. Placement of the equipment on a frequency based on 
useful life expectancies and a regular scheduled 
maintenance program for each vehicle. 

3. Purchase of semi-portable scales to more equitably 
charge for solid waste disposal and possible imple- 
mentation of mandatory collection in the county to 
reduce delinquency rates from non-payment of bills. 

4 . Overall system recommendations which call for the 
adoption of a regional solid waste agency and a 
continuing planning effort to identify and investigate 
solid waste processing, collection, and disposal al- 
ternatives for their suitability in Alachua County. 

5. Disposal system recommendations which include a re- 
commendation that the manufacturer's engineers meet 
with the plant engineers from the Regional Utilities 
Board to determine whether the quality and the rate 
of generation of steam produced by incineration is 
compatible with the generation equipment currently in 
use . 



■11- 



6. Collection system recommendations which include a 
call for the adoption of the curbside method of 
collection and the realization of a six-day per 
week collection system contingent on the continued 
attractiveness of incineration. 



--12- 



COMMUNITY FACILITIES PLAN 



Introduction 



Any study purporting to determine the level of need of 
various community facilities must consider the anticipated 
increase in population in the area, as well as the antici- 
pated spatial distribution patterns of population growth. 
There are various methods of projecting population growth 
in terms of numbers, however, there are considerably fewer 
methods of predicting the patterns of growth for more than 
just a few years into the future. The reader, should - 
therefore be cautioned that the projections of the patterns 
of growth in Alachua County are based on past and current 
trends of development and should not be expected to remain 
wholly static for the duration of the study period, which 
stretches to 1990. Although development trends may change 
for any number of reasons, an attempt must be made to anti- 
cipate growth patterns in order to tentatively suggest the 
level of need for, and location of, community facilities. 

The first item to consider is population growth, that 
is, the number of people who will be living in Alachua County 
and who will therefore constitute a demand for various faci- 
lities and services. Growth trends in Alachua County indicate 
that the county population grew 41.4% between 1960 and 197 0, 
with new estimates suggesting that the county grew another 
14.7% between 1970 and July of 1973. This rate of population 
increase is expected to continue throughout this decade and 
into the next, as indicated in Table 1. 



■ 13 



Alachua County should therefore be prepared to meet the 
demand for community facilities and services that an additional 
66,000 people will require. 

The next point to be considered is where within the 
county future residents will locate. Where will they live, 
and in what numbers? Answers to these questions will con- 
stitute a first level indication of the spatial distribution 
of the population. 

A review of past and current trends show that the 
Gainesville Urban Area represents the largest concentration 
of people within the county, accounting for approximately 
79% of the county's population in 1973. As the 1972 Popu- 
lation and Economic Study (NCFRPC, 197 2) indicated, the 
Gainesville Urban Area accounted for greater than 98% of 
the county's population increase in 1960, and in excess of 
95% in 1970. This trend is expected to continue. The reader 
should be cautioned that this does not imply that the smaller 
communities will not experience population growth. Indeed, 
growth in these areas has continued at a fairly steady rate 
and can be expected to continue thusly into the future. 

A second level of investigation is needed to predict 
in general terms where within these specific communities 
growth will occur. Although such predictions are somewhat 
tenuous, being based almost entirely upon past development 
trends and building permit data, they will indicate, in 
general terms, where the population will be concentrated 
and will, therefore, be helpful in determining the need 
for, and location of, various community facilities. 



■14- 



For the smaller communities this will not have as 
much bearing as it will for the Gainesville- Urban Area. 
Unless the smaller communities annex large parcels of 
land or experience unforeseen population increases be- 
tween the present and 1990, projections indicate that 
these cities will experience steady population growth 
but not so much growth as to drastically alter the exist- 
ing political boundaries. For the purposes of planning 
community facilities, therefore, it will be assumed that 
the geography of the smaller cities will remain essentially 
the same as now. 

The same does not hold true for the Gainesville Urban 
Area. While the Gainesville Urban Area accounted for appro- 
ximately 79% of the county's population in 1970, the area 
is expected to grow to over 150,000 and represent nearly 
84% of the county's total population by 1990. This figure 
represents a 66% increase in population for the Gainesville 
Urban Area and it is obvious that the present boundaries of 
growth must expand to accommodate these people. Figure 1 
represents the growth of the Gainesville Urban Area as fore- 
casted by the population projections and development trends. 
The figure represents the area contained within the HUD line, 
which is defined as the line to which growth is expected to 
extend by 1990. The dashed line in the figure represents 
the corporate limits to the City of Gainesville as of May, 
1974. The half-tone area represents the general extent of 
development as of May, 1974. The darker areas indicate the 
areas which are projected to be urbanized by 1990. As noted 
in the figure, development is expected to extend beyond the 
HUD line in some areas, with finger projections of develop- 
ment extending along U.S. 4 41 North, Newberry Road to the 
west, and Archer Road to the southwest. 



"15-- 



Demands and Needs 



The data presented above reveals several important points 
with regard to community facilities planning. First, the popu- 
lation in Alachua County is expected to increase by an esti- 
mated 66,000 people by 1990. Secondly, of these 66,000 people, 
approximately 62,000, or 94%, will locate in the Gainesville 
Urban Area. Each new area which is developed will create a 
demand for the use of certain facilities and services by the 
resident population. Existing facilities will become over- 
burdened in short order (if indeed they are not already over- 
burdened) and new or expanded facilities will be required to 
meet the new demand. In some cases, efficiency and economy 
may be better served by merging services to avoid duplication 
of efforts, and therefore, avoiding under-utilization of man- 
power and duplication of expenditures of taxpayer's money 
for overlapping programs. Specific references to this will 
be discussed later when pertinent. 



Goals and Policies 



In planning the need for current and future populations 
with regard to certain community facilities, a general statement 
of goals and policies is a useful tool in determining the direc- 
tion of planning and development. The Alachua County government 
has such a statement entitled "The Planning/Development Goals 
and Policies Guide." The following are selective excerpts 
which address issues of community facilities and planning goals. 



■16- 



It is the goal of the Alachua County government to 
help build a well balanced, high guality, economi- 
cally sound community which has a high level of 
governmental services; and which provides a broad 
choice of housing, employment and recreation oppor- 
tunities and a safe and healthy environment for 
present and future residents. 

Section 6 - Goals for Community Facilities 

A. Adequate and efficient facilities and services 

B. Fair distribution of costs and benefits 



Policies of Community Facilities 
Utilities 

1. The water, sewer, and basic utility systems should 
be designed to provide the maximum flexibility 
within the system and to the user. 

2. Water and sewer systems should be carefully followed 
in preparing land use plans. Planned densities must 
be created in order to plan intelligently for the 
expansion of water and sewer lines and systems.' 

3 . Utility services should be standard to everyone in 
the area where it is economically feasible to do so. 

4. The development of major utility systems should be 
coordinated with an overall plan for long-range area 
growth. 

Law Enforcement 

5. Law enforcement service should be maintained to ade- 
quately meet the needs of future growth. 

Fire Services 

6. Land for fire stations should be purchased on a 
planned basis in advance of the immediate needs 
for land. 

7 . Fire stations should be located central to their 
service areas with convenient access to major streets 

8. The fire service should be maintained to adequately 
meet the needs of future growth. 



-17 



Library Services 

9. Land for libraries should be planned in advance of 
the need for land. 

10. Branch libraries should be located near the centers 
of areas served. 

11. Library service should be maintained to adequately 
meet the needs of future growth. 

Educational Services 

12. Land for school purposes should be coordinated and 
planned in conjunction with the Alachua County 
School Board. 

13. Elementary schools should be located as near as 
possible to the center of areas served but away 
from heavily traveled streets. 

14 . Junior high schools should be located near the 
center of areas served adjacent to collector streets. 
Extensive open space should be maintained on the 
school site adjacent to collector streets in order 

to minimize any adverse effects of continuing flows 
of heavy traffic. 

15. Senior high schools should be located in the center 
of areas served on major thoroughfares. Extensive 
open space should be maintained adjacent to these 
major thoroughfares in order to minimize traffic 
hazards . 

16. The joint use of school facilities for education 
and other community purposes, such as recreation, 
should be encouraged. 

While this statement of goals and policies is not binding 
on any of the communities with the county, it is assumed that 
the statement does, in general terms, protect the interests of 
each community with regard to planning and development. This 
statement shall be referred to in later sections of this report. 



-18- 



The Overall Program Design for 1973-74, which defines 
the work program of the Council, states specifically the scope 
of this study: 

The purpose of this study is to analyze existing 
facilities and project future needs so as to provide 
the necessary guidance for a systematic approach to 
the provision and management of community facilities. 

The key community facilities which must be studied 
in detail include public safety f acilities--e .g. , fire 
protection and law enforcement — and libraries. In 
addition to these, facilities of the Alachua County 
Board of Public Instruction, which can and do perform 
an extra education function (playgrounds, auditoriums, 
gyms, etc.) shall be included in the study. 

In addition to the above-mentioned facilities, the 
following, which are currently the subject of separate 
studies will be considered: 

1) recreation and open space facilities; 

2) water and sewer facilities; and 

3) solid waste disposal facilities. 

These data will be evaluated against applicable 
standards and projected population size, and spatial 
and socioeconomic distribution. 

Consequent to this, a Community Facilities Plan 
will be developed which will provide a basis for a 
systematic approach to the provision and maintenance 
of community facilities. 



-19- 





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1. Gainesville Urban Areaj 



I 



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II 



i 



LIBRARY FACILITIES 



This section of the Community Facilities Plan will 
focus upon the community library needs through 1990. 
This study will limit itself to defining need in terms 
of library facilities, size of collections, and services 
such as the roving bookmobile, and will determine this 
need according to population projections and national 
and state standards for library operation. 

The study will proceed in the following manner: 

1) Identify and describe existing facilities and 
services ; 

2) Define the standards for library service as set 
forth by the American Library Association and 
the Florida Library Association; 

3) Compare existing facilities and services with 
the standards as defined; 

4) Define the library needs to 1990, identifying 
demographic and physical development trends; and 

5) Present a summary of recommendations. 



-22- 



EXISTING FACILITIES 



Libraries in Alachua County can generally be grouped 
into three categories: 



1. Santa Fe Regional Library System 

2. University and College Libraries 

3. Public and Private School Libraries 



A brief discussion of each category and the relative 
impact on library needs and services is in order. 



Santa Fe Regional Library System 



The Santa Fe Regional Library was established in 1959 
to provide library services to Alachua and Bradford Counties. 
The name of the Regional Library System indicates that the 
Santa Fe River is a common boundary of both of these counties 
Union County elected to join the regional system in 1962. 
However, since that time both Union and Bradford Counties 
have withdrawn from the system. 

Headquartered at the Gainesville Public Library, this 
system serves Alachua County and includes three branch li- 
braries in Hawthorne, High Springs, and Micanopy. Book- 
mobile service is also provided in the Gainesville Urban 
Area and to the smaller municipalities in the county by two 
bookmobiles. The Regional Library is administered through 
the City of Gainesville and is funded by both the City and 
the Alachua County Government. Local governments having 



--23- 



branch libraries contribute physical facilities (buildings) 
and maintenance. 



Detailed Specifics Include; 



The Gainesville Public Library serving as the central 
facility of the regional system as well as the main library 
for the City of Gainesville is currently located at 222 
East University Avenue, adjacent to City Hall. The present 
two story structure is five years old and has 17,500 
feet of working space, including a 2,500 square foot mezza- 
nine floor which houses the administrative offices and two 
working floors of 7,500 square feet each. Within this area 

are housed: 

TABLL 2 

1) 77,831 volumes 

2) 2,360 records 

3) 108 16 m.m. films 

4) 116 children filmstrips 

5) 265 framed art reproductions 

A variety of audio visual aids are available including 
the micro-film reader printer, a coin operated copier, pro- 
jectors and record players (with headphones) . Non-book materials 
include magazines and periodicals, newspapers, a Gainesville Sun 
index, journals, and minutes of local government meetings. 

Bookmobile service is also offered out of this library, 
with two bookmobiles roving the Gainesville Urban Area and 
the smaller municipalities in the county. The larger of the' 
two bookmobiles (3,500 volumes) serves the county areas and 
the Gainesville Urban Area. The other bookmobile, a 1959 
Ford van, primarily serves the inner city area, with highest 



-24- 



levels of service in lower income areas where mobility of 
the residents is generally restricted. Both bookmobiles 
are to be replaced by new larger vehicles in September, 
1974 which will increase the volume capacity and extent 
of these services. 

Bookmobile circulation is quite substantial as evi- 
denced by Table 3, and indicates that this service is a 
vital aspect of the total library services picture. Of 
the various bookmobile stops, the West Gate Shopping 
Center in Gainesville, is the major book outlet circu- 
lating over 7,000 volumes in 1972. 

The library hosts a number of programs such as book 
talks, school class visits, meetings, and panel discussions, 
as well as children and senior citizens programs. The 
childrens programs include a pre-school story hour, and 
school-age story hour, and a summer reading program. Adult 
programs include "Great Books" and discussion groups. Re- 
quests for special books are taken, and inter-library loans 
are arranged. Circulation at the Gainesville Public Library 
is very active, as noted in Table 3, and the volume of cir- 
culation is steadily growing larger. Peak periods of cir- 
culation are noted during the summer months, a function, 
perhaps, of greater use by school-age children and also the 
summer reading program. 



■25- 



TABLE 3 



ANNUAL BOOK CIRCULATION FIGURES 
SANTA FE REGIONAL LIBRARY SYSTEM 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974* 



Gainesville 
Hawthorne 
High Springs 
Micanopy 
Bookmobile I 
Bookmobile II 

TOTAL 



311,707 
5,891 

19,109 
4,821 

41,797 
7,420 

390,745 



332,827 

22,985 

16,379 

5,236 

33,264 

7,307 

417,998 



350,867 
22,936 
17,103 

4,367 
34,442 

7,599 

437,314 



186,066 

11,641 

9,122 

3,216 

15,094 

5,644 

230,783 



* Through June 30, 1974 



-26- 



Hawthorne 



Hawthorne has a 3,000 square foot single story building 
located next door to City Hall on Johnson Street. As of 
November, 1973 (the latest date for which figures were avail- 
able) the library had 10,600 volumes in stock. The library 
operates approximately 2 hours per week with a staff of two 
part-time library assistants and one part-time library page. 
Hawthorne Library will increase its hours of service to 2 5 
per week beginning in October, 1974. This library is a branch 
of the Santa Fe Regional Library System and is manned and 
stocked through the central headquarters in Gainesville. 
Programs and services are also planned through the regional 
system. This library enjoys active circulation. 



High Springs 



High Springs is currently using a former residence of 
between 500 and 600 square feet as the library. The book 
stock as of November 30, 1973, numbered 2,719 volumes. 
Circulation is active as noted in Table 3, and the library 
is open on a 20-hour per week schedule. One part-time li- 
brary assistant staffs the library. The High Springs 
Friends of the Library and various civic groups have under- 
taken a fund raising campaign to acquire new library space 
either through building a new facility or by purchasing an 
existing structure. The funds raised by the community will 
hopefully be matched by state or federal funds to complete 
the financial requirements. 



■27- 



Micanopy 



The Micanopy library recently moved from a location of 
very limited space (with no restrooms) to the first floor 
of the Town Hall, formerly the school building. The new 
location provides approximately 840 square feet which will 
allow substantial expansion of the current 2,658 volumes 
book stock. The library has limited activity and is open 
approximately ten hours per week. These hours of service 
at Micanopy will increase 20 per week in October, 1974. 

As evidenced in Table 3, the regional system has ex- 
perienced a steady rise in circulation during the last three 
and a half years. As mentioned earlier, the peak period for 
circulation is in the summer months, June through August, 
accounting for as much as 24% increase in circulation. This 
may be attributable to the summer reading program as well as 
to students who are no longer in school and therefore, do not 
have access to the school library. It is interesting to note 
that the summer months do not show a significant increase in 
the number of borrower cards issued. 

The regional system, as of June 30, 1974, had 95,808 
volumes in the collection, representing approximately .77 
books per resident in Alachua County. This compares with 
68,510 volumes and a .69 per capita figure as of May 1, 1968. 
With an active circulation approaching 460,000 volumes per 
year, per capita circulation approximates 3.72 volumes per 
year for 1974. Per capita circulation figures for 1972 and 
1973 were 3.60 and 3.64 volumes per year respectively. 



-28 



University and College Libraries 



The University of Florida and Santa Fe Community 
College each have libraries to serve the respective student 
body . 



University of Florida 

The University of Florida library may be considered a 
system within itself with libraries East and West adjacent 
to each other serving as the main library facility and ten 
libraries serving specific colleges such as Law, Medicine, 
Architecture and others. Total volumes within this system 
are in excess of 1.6 million, including the large branches 
at the Health Center, Law School, and Agricultural School. 
University students use their student I.D. and fee cards 
as library cards, while staff members (approximately 6,500) 
also may use the facilities. The University library has 
issued 670 courtesy cards to residents not otherwise associ- 
ated with the University. 



Santa Fe Community College 

The Community College library has approximately 35,000 
volumes and bound periodicals, with the main library located 
at the northwest campus near 1-75. This library and the 
several relatively small branch libraries located at the 
branch campuses serve the students enrolled at the college 
(9,455 in Spring term, 1974). Any student enrolled may 
borrow books from the library regardless of whether that 



-29- 



student is enrolled for a credit or a non-credit course, 
as long as the student's fee card is validated. Special 
borrowing cards have not been issued, although any county 
resident is welcome to use the library facility. 



Public and Private Schools 



Alachua County has 31 schools operated by the Alachua 
County Board of Public Instruction, all of which have a 
library or media center of some kind. Approximately 20,000 
school children attend public schools in Alachua County. 
As noted in the November, 1971 Survey of School Plants, 
Alachua County Schools (Florida Department of Education) , not 
all public schools have libraries considered adequate for the 
student population. Recommendations were made within that 
document for new construction to remedy this situation and 
other situations. 

Libraries are open during school hours for use by 
students and staff. They close at the end of the school day, 
and are not open on weekends. Public school libraries are 
open during the summer only at those schools that are par- 
ticipating in the summer school program. 

There are several private schools in Alachua County; 
however, these libraries are not open to the public, although 
they do provide library services for their students. 



-30- 



STANDARDS FOR PUBLIC LIBRARY SERVICE 



The American Library Association has established and 
published standards of service for various types of li- 
braries, including public libraries, university and junior 
college libraries, small public libraries, as well as book- 
mobile services, to mention a few. Many of tnese standards 
regard organizational structure and government of the library, 
the selection and organization of material, and the descrip- 
tions of services preferred rendered by libraries. This re- 
port will focus attention on the standards for physical fa- 
cilities, size of book collection and the level of services 
offered. 

In conjunction with the ALA standards, the Florida 
Library Association and the Florida Library Study Commission 
have established standards for library service and operations 
within the State of Florida. Specifically, these three 
documents will be reviewed: 

Florida Standards for Public Library Service C1967), 

Survey of Florida Public Libraries (1972) 

Report of Florida Library Study Commission (1972) 



Structure 



According to the standards of the Florida Library Associ- 
ation, a regional library system serves a population in excess 
of 100,000, consists of one or more counties and includes a 
headquarters library, branch libraries and bookmobile service. 
The headquarters library of a regional system usually also 



•31- 



serves as the main community library, and as the center of 
a regional system should be within one hour's drive of any 
resident wishing to use it. The headquarters library should 
be open morning, afternoon, and evening hours for parts of 
six days with Sunday hours and the hours of operation of 
branch libraries subject to local conditions. 

The regional system should hold a collection of book 
and non-book materials of sufficient size to meet all but 
the most specialized needs of the region. At the same time, 
the staff of the headquarters library should be large enough 
and include enough professional librarians to select and 
organize the materials, analyze and update the resources of 
the system, and provide administrative and professional leader- 
ship to all library units within the system. Inherent within 
the service programs and policies of the regional system should 
be a flexibility which will allow the system to adapt to the 
changing needs of the community it serves, as may become 
evident by population growth, physical development, or level 
of educational attainment. An inter-library loan system should 
also be incorporated in the system. 

Branch libraries are local extensions of headquarter 
libraries, located in the outlying communities of a regional 
system, or so that their service areas encompass highly popu- 
lated segments of a large urban area. 



r. 



Quoting from the standards 



C 



Urban branch libraries should serve populations of 
25,000 to 50,000; having working collection of 20,000 
to 50,000 currently useful volumes and be open 48 hours 
or more each week. 




•32- 




The smallest branch library should serve a trade area 
population of at least 5,000 and be within 15 minutes 
driving time of the citizens using it. It should con- 
tain at least 15,000 up-to-date books on subjects of 
current interests, and be open to the public 25 hours 
or more each week. 



The bookmobile is an auxiliary service of the regional 
system and functions to serve residents who do not have access 
to a public library. A professional librarian should be in 
charge of the bookmobile, and all materials and services of 
the libraries within the regional system should be available 
to users of the bookmobile. The bookmobile circuit should, 
if possible, allow regularly scheduled weekly stops. 

Although not specifically noted in the standards, a book- 
mobile may serve several very important functions other than 
providing services to residents who do not live within a 
reasonable distance of a library. For instance, a bookmobile 
may serve to introduce library service to previously unserved 
areas. Furthermore, by accurate record keeping and analysis 
of bookmobile circulation trends, a number of desirable lo- 
cations for future branch libraries may be determined. Book- 
mobiles may also provide library service to small communities 
which do not have library facilities or to areas that cannot 
support a permanent library facility. Equally important, how- 
ever, the bookmobile may provide library service to that portion 
of the population which is immobile, as well as those portions 
of the population which live in fringe areas of the city, county, 
or region. 



-3 3- 



Physical Facilities 



The American Library Association emphasizes the need for 
the library building to be expandable to accommodate population 
in the community, as well as increased demand for use of 
library facilities. With heavier emphasis being placed today 
on formal and continuing education, greater demand for library 
facilities and services will necessitate planning library 
buildings with the capability of expansion. Therefore: 

The building site and the orientation of the 
building on the site should permit future 
verticle and/or horizontal enlargement of 
the building. 

A city's main library or the headquarters library of a 
regional library system functions as the focal point of service 
and administration. In order to function properly and effi- 
ciently as the reading and resource center of the locality and 
of the system itself, and to provide the extent and level of 
services demanded and needed, the library should have sufficient 
space to perform the objectives of library service and the vari- 
ous on-going library programs. Below are some highlights of 
principles and standards as recommended by the ALA: 

The headquarters building of a library system should be 
located and designed to provide maximum accessibility 
and space for the full range of library service needed 
by the area served. 

The site for a public library building should be where 
the largest percentage of all the people to be served 
will have access to the library frequently in the normal 
pursuit of their activities. The site should have heavy 
pedestrian traffic, be convenient to public transportation, 
abd have conveniently available automobile parking and 
public, commercial, or library parking lots. 



■34- 



storage space and equipment for physical handling of 
audio visual and other non-book materials,, should pre- 
serve such materials from damage and deterioration, 
yet make them readily available to users. 

Since the public library is the only library facility 
freely available to most adults the major space in a 
public library building should be allocated to materials, 
seating and services to adults. 

Space should be considered for transitional services 
to meet the needs of young adults. 

Physical provisions should be made for a staff desk 
to provide advisory services to users in person, 
information and reference services to users by tele- 
phone and in person, and guidance in the use of li- 
brary resources. 

Multi-purpose rooms should be provided for meeting, 
viewing and listening by groups or individuals with 
auxiliary space for chairs, folding tables, storage 
cloaks, audio-visual and exhibit equipment and a 
kitchenette . 

Space must be provided in the library system for the 
activities of a library extension service program 
and may include the following: Offices, work space, 
and storage, receiving and shipping facilities, 
storage and loading of bookmobiles. 

The administrative area must be planned to allow for 
sufficient areas for all purposes to accommodate the 
administrative and personnel directors, service coor- 
dinators, business and clerical personnel and a supply 
depot . 



As noted, the above are merely highlights of the prin- 
ciples and standards recommended by the ALA; a complete 
listing of standards is available by referring to Minimum 
Standards for Public Library Systems (American Library 
Association, Chicago, 1967). 



--35- 



Interpreting the standards and transforming them into 
specific guidelines with respect to square footage needs 
can result in divergent opinions. The ALA guidelines for 
libraries serving population not in excess of 50,000 people 
are provided in Table 4. The total floor space, including 
shelving space, reader space, work, space, and storage, varies 
from a high of .7 square feet per capita to .6 square feet 
per capita, at which point the table abruptly ends. By 
comparison, Wheeler and Goldhor ( Practical Administration 
of Public Libraries, 1962 ) establish guidelines for public 
libraries according to the size of population served, ranging 
from less than 10,000 to greater than 500,000 people. The 
total square footage varies from a recommended high of .7 
to .8 square feet per capita for populations under 10,000, 
to a low of .3 square feet per capita for populations in 
excess of 500,000 (Table 5). By yet another standard, that 
established by the Florida Library Study Commission, June 16, 1971, 
all libraries should provide .6 square feet floor space per capita 
served. Evidently, this latter standard applies to all libraries 
and library systems regardless of population size. 

Within the facility itself, there are more standards 
regarding shelving space, reader space, and the number of seats 
to be provided. There is less variance among the three pre- 
viously mentioned sources in this respect than was true of 
physical facility standards. Both the ALA and FLA recommend 
30 square feet per seated reader. The number of seats required 
depends upon the population served and the table one refers to. 
The ALA has a sliding scale of seats to population increasing 
from roughly 5.4 seats per 1,000 population for areas of less 
than 2,500 people, to 4.6 seats per 1,000 population for areas 
between 2,500 and 10,000 people, to 3 . seats per 1,000 popula- 
tion for areas approaching 50,000 people. Wheeler and Goldhor 



-36- 



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■39- 



have somewhat more demanding standards, calling for 10 seats 
per 1,000 for areas of 10,000 population or less, 3 seats per 
1,000 for areas approximating 100,000 population, and 1 seat 
per 1,000 for areas of 500,000 or greater population. The 
FLA standards call for three seats per 1,000 population served, 
apparently with no sliding scale. 

The ALA and FLA agree that shelving space should equal 
one linear foot for every eight volumes held in stock. Wheeler 
and Golhor do not present any suggestions in this matter. In- 
terpreting the ALA and FLA standards necessitates knowing how 
many volumes are in the collection, and/or referring to another 
set of standards to determine how many volumes should be held 
in the collection. 



Book Collections 



All three sources cited have sliding scales to determine the 
size of the book collection, with the independent variable being 
the population served. Tables 4 and 5 illustrate the guidelines 
of the ALA, and Wheeler and Goldhor, respectively. Table 6 con- 
tains the FLA Standards. 

TABLE 6 
PER CAPITA HOLDINGS 
FLORIDA LIBRARY STUDY COMMISSION 
JUNE 16, 1974 

Population Served Volumes/Capita 

Less than 25,000 4/capita or 50,000 volumes, 

whichever is greater 

25,000 - 50,000 3.5/Capita 

50,000 - 100,000 3/Capita 

100,000 - 500,000 2.5/Capita 

Over 500,000 2/Capita 

-40- 



Only the Wheeler and Goldhor study has any recommenda- 
tions for less than two books per capita, and then only 
for the very large population centers, those in excess of 
200,000 people. The FLA standards call for a minimum of 
two books per capita, even at the over 500,000 population 
level, with greater per capita holdings for smaller popu- 
lations. The ALA recommends two or four books per capita 
for systems serving 150,000 to 1,000,000 people and at 
least two volumes per capita in areas serving in excess 
of 1,000,000 people. 



Bookmobiles 



The following excerpts from Standards of Quality for 
Bookmobile Service (American Library Association, 1963) 
provide a synopsis of the guidelines with which to measure 
bookmobile service. 



The objective of bookmobile service is to bring library 
books and other educational materials, information ser- 
vices, and professional reading guidance to those resi- 
dents of an area who do not live within a reasonable 
distance of a fixed agency of a public library system. 

Bookmobile Service should operate as an integral part of 
the library system. 



Scheduling 

The bookmobile schedule should provide a sufficient 
number of stops of appropriate duration to extend the 
library program in an equitable way over the area not 
otherwise served. 

The bookmobile should maintain regular schedules of 
visits at intervals no greater than two v/eeks ; weekly, 
where it is possible and useful . 



•41- 



No bookmobile stop should be maintained in an area 
where it would duplicate service given by another 
library agency. 

The length of each stop may be judged by the number 
of people to be served and should be of sufficient 
duration to offer professional advisory service. 

No stop should be less than 30 minutes. In order to 
assure time for adequate advisory service, the average 
number of books circulated per hour should not exceed 
100 on a bookmobile carrying 2,500 volumes with a 
staff of two. 

Service should be offered at a time convenient to the 
majority of the people in a given area. It is highly 
desirable to provide service during evening hours . 
Service on Saturdays is very popular in many communi- 
ties and should be scheduled whenever possible. 



Library Materials 

Books and other library materials for bookmobiles use 
should be selected, retained and discarded in light 
of the conscious objectives of the service as a part 
of a library system. 

The minimum book collection available for bookmobile 
use should range from 10,000 to 15,000 volumes per 
bookmobile . 

All circulating materials in the library system should 
be available through the bookmobile. 

Each bookmobile shall carry a minimum of 2,500 volumes 
to provide a varied selection. 



Bookmobile Staff 

The staff of the bookmobile department should be of 
sufficient number and with sufficient professional and 
clerical training to perform the duties involved in 
assembling, organizing, and interpreting books and 
other library materials and providing consistently 
efficient service. 



■42- 



A bookmobile should have no less than two staff members-- 
a librarian and a driver--clerk — for each scheduled trip 
and a total departmental staff equalling at least one 
member for each 25,000 volumes circulated annually. 

At least one professional staff member should be avail- 
able to provide professional services to patrons at all 
times . 

The library should maintain a well-organized program of 
in-service training for the bookmobile staff. 

There should be a manual detailing the policies and 
procedures of the library system and the division of 
duties and responsibilities in the bookmobile depart- 
ment. 



Bookmobile - Physical Aspects 

The type and size of the bookmobile selected should be 
governed by the program of service, the geography of 
the area, and the density and distribution of the popu- 
lation, bearing in mind that the life expectancy of a 
well-designed and constructed bookmobile unit is 10-12 
years or more. 

The bookmobile should accommodate no less than 2,500 
volumes . 



Bookmobile Headquarters 

Quarters of adequate size with sufficient equipment and 
special facilities for this service should be provided 
to house the bookmobile, its book stock, the necessary 
records, and staff. 

The book stock area should be planned to house a maximum 
of 10,000 - 15,000 volumes per bookmobile. 

The book stock area should be adjacent to the bookmobile 
garage and on the same floor level. 



Personnel 

The FLA follows the ALA standards here and it is worth- 
while to note these ALA standards: 



-43- 



The number of staff members should be sufficient to 
perform the duties involved in selecting, organizing 
and interpreting materials and to provide consistently 
efficient service at all hours when the headquarters 
unit and community outlets are open to the public. 

One staff member (full time or equivalent) should be 
the minimum provision for each 2,000 people in the 
service area. 

Professional staff members should be available to 
provide professional services to the public at all 
hours when libraries are open. 

The staff in each library system should include persons 
professionally trained in the specialized services re- 
quired . 

In each library system there should be at least one 
professional staff member for each of the following 
aspects of library service: administration, organi- 
zation and control of materials, selection information 
and advisory service for adults, selection information 
and advisory service for children, extension services, 
including services to those persons in need of a special 
type of service such as inmates of a correctional in- 
stitute, the home-bound, the culturally disadvantaged, 
the blind and handicapped, and those living in a 
distance from library agencies. 



The reader should be cautioned that these are merely 
highlights of the ALA standards. The reader should also 
be cautioned against accepting these purely quantitative 
standards without considering the qualitative aspects as 
well. For a complete look at the ALA standards, which are 
too lengthy to reproduce here in their entirety, refer to 
the Minimum Standards for Public Library Systems , (American 
Library Association, Chicago, 1967). 



-44- 



Financial Resources 



The FLA indicates that a regional library system as 
described earlier (see Structure ) and meeting the standards 
as developed will cost approximately $5.00 per capita. 
This figure was published in 1967 and it is reasonable to 
assume that the costs of library operation and the provision 
of library services have increased. However, for lack 
of a more recent estimate, this figure will be used as a 
base mark from which to measure. 

Funding this $5.00 per capita should not come solely 
from the local community or the region. The FLA guidelines 
indicate that: 



State aid should be based on population and should 
provide at least 25% of the total support of the 
system. 



Furthermore, federal funds should be sought and used for, 
but necessarily restricted to, provision of services: 



...beyond the scope of local and regional resources, 
for training, research, and demonstration, and other 
state-wide projects designated to raise library 
standards . 



Comparison of Existing Facilities With Library Standards 



As a preface to the discussion comparing existing facilities 
with standards for library operations, the impact of the Uni- 
versity of Florida libraries on the Santa Fe Regional Library 



-45- 



system, especially the headquarters facility at the Gaines- 
ville Public Library, should be assessed. What impact does 
the University Library system, with its 1.6 million volumes, 
have upon the regional system in Alachua County? The University 
Library system is designed primarily to assist the students 
and faculty in their academic pursuits and research. However, 
as a university student I.D. is not required to enter the 
building, it is possible for any county resident to use the 
library facilities and resources for the purposes of in-house 
research. Borrowing privileges, however, are restricted to 
students, faculty, and staff, although courtesy cards may be 
obtained through an application procedure. As mentioned 
earlier, 670 courtesy cards have been issued to persons not 
otherwise associated with the University, which would imply 
that this concept is not very widely used. 

What impact, on the other hand, does the University student 
population have on the Gainesville Public Library or on the 
branch libraries within the County? What percentage of the 
University's 25,000 students (projected to be 27,500 in 
September, 1974) make use of the library facilities and 
borrowing privileges at the Gainesville Public Library or 
branch libraries within the county? 

Definitive information of this nature is simply not avail- 
able. The public library's record keeping does not specify 
or categorize borrowers according to occupation or student 
versus non-student status. One estimate has placed student 
patronage of the Gainesville Public Library at 30% of the 
adult usage. While the only measure of usage is registra- 
tion, the current figure of 24,744 adult borrowers regi- 
stered is not a true indicator of usage. However, this could 
be used as a base figure from which to compute student usage. 



-46- 



The direction of impact, therefore, does seem to indicate 
that more University of Florida students are likely to use 
the public library system than are residents of the county 
likely to take out borrowing privileges from the Univer- 
sity of Florida. Therefore, for the purposes of this study, 
the University of Florida student body population will be 
included in the Alachua County population projections, 
which will be used to determine the level of library services 
needed in the county. 

Using the FLA standards of .6 square feet per capita 
population served, the Santa Fe Regional Library system, 
serving Alachua County with a 1973 population estimated 
at 120,128, should have 72,000 square feet of library 
space. Unfortunately, neither the ALA, nor the FLA, 
nor any other source provides any guidelines regarding 
the distribution of this space within the system itself. 
Each source made recommendations for the system as a whole, 
but did not consider the distribution patterns within the 
system to sub-systems or branches. Presumably this was 
done to allow each system to react to its own unique 
local situation and problems with regard to allocation of 
space. It may be assumed, however, that with regard to the 
Santa Fe Regional Library system, the bulk of the space 
(and book collections) should be located at the central 
facility, the Gainesville Public Library. This library 
serves not only the Gainesville Urban Area, with a popu- 
lation approaching 97,000, but also serves the existing 
branch libraries as well as provides bookmobile service 
to that portion of the county residents who are without 
library facilities within their respective areas. 



■47- 



In light of the facts, it is suggested that the Gaines- 
ville Public Library, serving in the capacity of central 
facility for the entire system, should provide space for 
the residents of the Gainesville Urban Area as well as the 
balance of the population in Alachua County which does 
not have ready access to a public library. Using this 
concept, the Gainesville Public Library should have 69,000 
square feet of floor space. 

The balance of the floor space within the system should 
theoretically be provided by the branch libraries, which 
in this case refer to Hawthorne, High Springs and Micanopy. 
However, once again, the FLA, and to some extent, the ALA 
standards are not specific enough to be wholly applicable 
to these libraries. By the FLA standards, the smallest 
branch libraries should serve a trade areas population of 
5,000, with a minimum book collection of 15,000 volumes. 
None of the three cities in question have a population even 
approaching 5,000. If one uses the ALA standards, the small- 
est population figure specifically considered is 2,499, and 
only High Springs has a population near that figure pre- 
sently (estimated at 3,000 in 1973). Clearly, some im- 
provisions must be considered to reconcile the standards 
with existing circumstances. 

A similar situation exists with respect to the size of 
the book collection recommended by the standards. Using as 
a base figure of 2.5 books per capita, the Santa Fe Regional 
Library system should hold 300,000 volumes in stock. Of this, 
the headquarters facility should house the bulk of the material 
since this serves a large urban area as well as provides 
bookmobile service to the outlying areas. Using the afore- 
mentioned formula, the Gainesville Public Library should hold 



-48- 



287,500 volumes in stock. The remainder of the book collection 
should be provided by the respective branches within the 
system. 

Within this context, the library system and the Gainesville 
Public Library in particular, is sorely deficient with respect 
to both space requirements and the size of the book collection. 
The entire regional system has only 21,84 square feet of space, 
representing .18 square feet per capita and meeting 30% of 
the standards. The central facility is 17,500 square feet, 
far too small to adequately serve 115,000 people in the 
Gainesville Urban Area and Alachua County. For the popula- 
tion area served, this facility allocates .15 square feet per 
capita and achieves only 25% of the square footage recommended 
earlier in this section. The original plan for this facility 
called for 40,000 square feet, which was subsequently reduced 
to 23,000 square feet with the assurance that the capability 
for vertical expansion would be provided. The final product 
is the existing structure of 17,500 square feet, with no 
capabilities for vertical expansion whatever. Furthermore, 
horizontal expansion is likewise infeasible due to the eco- 
nomics of such expansion, as well as the physical obstacles 
that would have to be overcome. 

The existing facility is inadequate in size to provide the 
level of services called for by the population, with particu- 
lar respect to the size of the book collection, the storage 
and use of non-book and audio visual material, reading space 
and the provision of adequate space for meetings, reading 
programs and a number of children and adult programs . 



-49- 



The book collection is likewise below the standards for 
an area of this population. At the present time 95,808 volumes 
are held in the regional system, or .80 volumes per capita. 
The Gainesville Public Library with approximately 78,000 
volumes holds .86 books per capita served. These figures 
do not compare favorably with the established standards 
of 2.5 books per capita and indicates that the system is 
achieving 32% of the standards. The headquarters facility 
is meeting 27% of the standards. That the library is defi- 
cient in this area is obvious, yet procurement of the volumes 
necessary to meet the standards is severly inhibited by space 
limitations and budget restrictions. 

With regard to funding the FLA standards call for 
$5.00 per capita for regional systems. 1973-74 budget ex- 
penditures amounted to $4.37 per capita. Raising this 
figure to $5.00 per capita would add $75,600 to the library 
budget using 1973 papulation figures. 

r 
1990 Plan 



The provision of the level of library services nece- 
ssary to meet the needs and demands of the 1990 population 
must be preceded by bringing the current facilities and 
services up to standard. The following plan is, therefore, 
presented. 



■50- 



Physical Facilities 



Table 1 in the introduction to this report shows a 
projected population figure for Alachua County for 1990 
of 185,400 people, with 155,736 people living in the 
urbanized area of Gainesville. By FLA standards the 
system as a whole should have 111,240 square feet of 
floor space distributed among the central facilities and 
branch libraries. The following distribution pattern is 
recommended : 



Gainesville Public Library . As headquarters for the 
Santa Fe Regional Library system, this facility should house 
a bulk of the volumes in the system's book collection, as 
well as have sufficient space to service several bookmobiles 
and carry out a number and variety of library sponsored pro- 
grams. To meet the 1990 needs of the urban area and the 
county population, it is recommended that this central faci- 
lity be augmented by four branches located within the Gaines- 
ville Urban Area, each with 2,400 - 3,500 square feet of floor 
space. The location of these branches should be determined 
in part by circulation figures and trends as indicated by 
bookmobile service. It should be noted, however, that at 
this time a branch library of approximately 2,400 square 
feet is being proposed and considered for location in the 
Northeast Neighborhood Center. This concept could apply 
equally as well to other community centers, such as a 
southeast community center. Similarly, current circulation 
figures of the bookmobiles indicate that Westside in the 
Gainesville Urban Area is the principal demand area. Con- 
sidering the ALA recommendations that the libraries be located 
in an area of maximum accessibility to which people come 



■51- 



often, a branch library near or at the Millhopper Shopping 
Center would be logical. 

With Westside being the primary area of demand and with 
growth trending further west, a branch library on the west 
side of 1-75 is considered a possibility for future con- 
sideration. It is recommended that this area be looked at 
and bookmobile circulation figures be analyzed to determine 
whether a permanent branch will indeed be justifiable and, 
if so, where it should be located. 

With four branches within the urban area totaling 
between 10-14,000 square feet, the central facility must 
still be large enough to assure adequate space for its 
book collection and performance of library programs. It 
is recommended that the Gainesville Public Library, 
therefore, have 95,000 square feet of floor space. In 
light of today's needs, it is recommended that a new li- 
brary facility be constructed, located in the downtown 
area, perhaps as a part of or adjacent to the downtown 
governmental buildings complex, with 60,000 square feet 
of floor space, and the capability to expand by an addi- 
tional 35,000 square feet. Expansion should be able to 
take place either vertically or horizontally. Furthermore, 
consideration of adequate parking space, which the current 
facility lacks, should be made. 



Hawthorne . While the service population of the Hawthorne 
area does not justify additional square footage in the existing 
building, the demand for service and additional materials and 
programs does warrant attention. 



-52- 



A 1,200 square foot addition to the existing structure 
is currently being planned toward the end of the current 
Six Year Long Range Planning Period (1974-1980) . The 
existing building and site was designed to readily accorrano- 
date such an expansion to the rear of the building. A 3,000 
square foot branch library building is projected for con- 
struction during the first two year periods of the 1974-80 
Long Range Plan for service. This is contingent upon un- 
locking State matching construction funds which have already 
been authorized by the Legislature but which are currently 
blocked from release. 



High Springs . The High Springs Friends of the Library 
and several civic organizations are engaged in a fund raising 
campaign so that a new library facility may be obtained. 
Following ALA standards established in Table 4, High Springs 
should have a 3,000 square foot library facility in 1990, 
based on population estimates. 

A library facility located in High Springs is also 
oriented to provide service to the Alachua area. The High 
Springs facility should be designed to allow for future 
expansion, so that should there be sufficient demand, 
additional square footage could be built. This should be 
considered as an alternative to construction of branch 
libraries in both cities. 



Micanopy . Micanopy is the only city other than Haw- 
thorne and High Springs that has a library facility now, 
and this one is small (840 square feet) , with limited 
activity. Close observation should be made of circulation 



-53' 



activity and library use before any expansion is considered. 
The current facility should meet the space needs of the 
community through 1990 unless a population surge takes place 
or the demand for library services significantly increases. 



Alachua. Alachua is growing at a rate that is projected 
to bring that city's population above that of High Springs by 
1990, and there is some sentiment in the community to obtain 
a library facility. It is recommended that a branch library 
of 3,200 square feet be built here only after there has been 
shown sufficient demand for such a facility, such as would 
be indicated by circulation figures of the bookmobile and/or 
significant citizen's effort and support for a library. As 
with the three cities which now have small branch libraries, 
citizen support and initiation of the project must be a pre- 
requisite for obtaining a branch library. 



Newberry, Waldo, Archer and LaCrosse . These cities are 
relatively small now and are not projected to grow a great 
deal between now and 1990. It is felt tnat these cities should 
rely upon the regional system's bookmobiles for library 
services, as these cities are not considered large enough to 
economically support a permanent library facility. However, 
should such community support be prevalent and a small li- 
brary facility established in any of these cities, consideration 
should be given to joining the Santa Fe Regional Library system 
in order to benefit from the resources of that system. 



-54- 



Bookmobiles 



The replacement of the older and smaller bookmobile 
with a larger vehicle is recommended, along with the 
addition of a multi-purpose van to aid in book drop collection 
and branch library services. As the branch libraries within 
the Gainesville Urban Area are established, these bookmobiles 
should be able to provide weekly service to the outlying areas 
of the county. Until such time as the branch libraries within 
the urban area are built, this small van should continue to 
be used. The addition of the multi-purpose van and the large 
bookmobile should affect the distribution pattern of the 
mobile work load so that stops may be scheduled with greater 
frequency, approaching, if not achieving, weekly service. 



Book Collections 



The regional system should have 463,500 volumes in its 
book collection to meet the standards for the projected 1990 
population. To come up to the standards for the present 
population, 202,000 additional volumes are needed, to bring 
the total for the system to 300,000 volumes, or 2.5 volumes 
per capita. The distribution patterns for these volumes 
and for library floor space within the system for 1990 are 
recommended as follows: 



-55- 



Table 7 



DISTRIBUTION OF RESOURCES, 1990 



GPL 

GUA Branches 

Hawthorne 

High Springs 

Alachua 

Micanopy 

TOTAL 



Volumes 

396,615 
40,000 
10,000* 
10,000 
10,000 
5,000 

471,615 



Floor Space 

95,000 
10,000 

3,000* 

3,100 

3,200 

1,000 



115,300 



* Existing 



As the table indicates, the above distribution pattern 
will actually place the system, including all branches, 
slightly above the standards for book collection and library 
floor space in 1990. 

It is recommended that in conjunction with a 60,000 square 
foot centralized library facility, the size of the book collec- 
tion within that facility be raised from the present 78,000 
to 200,000 volumes. Recognizing that this is a large initial 
increase, it should be pointed out that when this level is 
attained an additional 196,000 will be needed before 1990 to 
bring the library up to standards. 



-56- 



Personnel 



In order to meet the FLA and ALA standards for personnel, 
the library system will have to have 93 staff members or full 
time equivalents by 1990. As noted in the FLA standards: 

Professional librarians should serve as: head 
librarians, assistant head librarians, super- 
visors of branch and bookmobile services, super- 
visors of adult, children, young adult and tech- 
nical services, subject reference specialist, 
readers advisors, branch librarians, and cata- 
loguers . 



Funding 



Funding for library services should be maintained at a 
level sufficient to provide the number of services required 
for an area of this population size. Certainly the minimum 
level should be maintained at $5.00 per capita, above and 
beyond the cost of new building construction and the con- 
comitant increase in volume holdings necessary to meet 
standards for library service. It should be emphasized that 
the $5.00 per capita figure was a minimum figure, established 
in 1967 by the Florida Library Association, deemed necessary 
for the provision of library services able to meet the estab- 
lished standards. Inflation since 1967 has probably increased 
this figure several dollars, and this should be taken into 
account when planning budget needs. 



•57- 



PUBLIC SAFETY 



The Public Safety segment of the Conununity Facilities 
Plan will deal specifically with the fire protection systems 
in the county, emergency rescue and emergency medical services, 
law enforcement and bikeway systems. The emphasis will be 
placed on defining existing standards for operation within 
these respective areas and assessing the needs of the county 
population through the year 1990. 



Fire Protection Facilities 



The provision of fire protection facilities and services 
is often taken for granted by citizens, as the highly visible 
fire stations and fire engines serve to confirm their belief 
that they enjoy adequate fire protection. Such, however, is 
not always the case, as this study will point out. There are 
several components to the total fire protection system which 
are not as visible as fire stations and fire engines; components 
such as the adequacy of the water supply and water distribution 
system, the adequacy of a communications network, or indeed, 
the adequacy of manpower and equipment and their distribution. 

These components are the backbone of a municipal rating 
system established by the Insurance Service Offices (ISO) , 
which grades municipalities on their ability to provide adequate 
fire protection service to their residents. The rating scale 
varies from one to ten, with one being highest rating and ten 
correspondingly the lowest, usually indicating that a munici- 
pality is considered without fire protection service. Rural 



-58- 



towns usually have ratings between six and eight. The 
ratings for the respective cities in Alachua 'County are 
provided in Table 8 . 



The components of the fire protection system will be 
addressed in this study via the following guidelines: 

1. Water systems, including supply, distribution 
and location of hydrants. 



2. Communications, including alarms and alarm 
systems, and a communication headquarters. 



3. Fire stations, their location, equipment, and 
manpower . 

4. 1990 Plan, a summary of recommendations. 



c* Water System 



Water Supply may be considered one of the most criti- 
cally important aspects of the fire protection system. Within 
this context, this segment of the study will focus upon three 
key elements of water supply: 

1. Reguired fire flow and the duration of the fire flow; 

2. The size and layout of water distribution lines; 

3. The distribution of fire hydrants and the adequacy of 
coverage. 



•59- 



TABLE 8 

Municipal Fire Protection Ratings 
Alachua County 



City 

Alachua 

Archer 

Gainesville 

Hawthorne 

High Springs 

Lacrosse 

Micanopy 

Newberry 

Waldo 



Ratir 


1 


8 




8 




4 




8 




8 




__2 




__2 




8 




9 





Rating range from a high of 1 to a low of 10. 

2 

Lacrosse and Micanopy were not listed at the time 

this data was collected. 



-60- 



Fire Flow 



The fire flow required for a given area is an estimate of 
the amount of water, expressed in gallons per minute or flow, 
required to control a fire in the miiediate subject area. 
This figure varies accordingly to population, structural 
conditions and density of building distribution. 



Objectives 

The objective is to insure that water is delivered to fire 
hydrants in sufficient volume to provide the fire department 
pumping apparatus with the capability to reach and sustain 
the required fire flow. 



Standards 

The standards established by the Insurance Services Offices 
are accepted throughout most of the United States as the legi- 
timate standards for performance measurements. These standards 
utilize two methods for determining fire flow: 

Population - In general terms this method relies upon 
nationwide experience to determine fire flow requirements 
for an area or community based upon the population of 
that community. Table 9 illustrates this technique. This 
method has been considered inadequate in some cases and 
is being replaced by a method considering the structuring 
conditions prevalent and the proximity of buildings to 



-61- 



TABLE 9 



REQUIRED FIRE FLOW 



Population 



Required Fire Flow 
for Average City^ 



gpm 



mgd 



Duration 
Hours 



1 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

10 

13 

17 

22 

27 

33 

40 

«55 

75 

95 

120 

150 

200 



000 
500 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 



1 

1 

1 
1 

2 
2 
2 
3 
3 
4 
4 
5 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 



000 
250 
500 
750 
000 
250 
500 
000 
500 
000 
500 
000 
500 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 



1 
1 

2 
2 
2 
3 
3 
4 
5 



44 
80 
16 
52 
88 
24 
60 
32 
04 



5.76 

6.48 

7.20 

7.92 

8.64 

10.08 

11.52 

12.96 

14.40 

15.84 

17.28 



4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 



Over 200,000 population, 12,000 gpm, with 2,000 to 8,000 gpm 
additional for a second fire, for a 10-hour duration. 



From: STANDARD SCHEDULE FOR CITIES AND TOWNS OF THE 
UNITED STATES WITH REFERENCES TO THEIR FIRE 
DEFENSES AND PHYSICAL CONDITIONS (New York: 
American Insurance Association (National 
Board of Fire Underwriters), 1956 ed.) 

Source: Principles & Practice of Urban Planning , International 
City Manager Association, 1967 



-62- 



one another, in addition to population. » 

Structural Conditions - This method pertains primarily 
to residential development, basing the fire flow upon 
structural materials and congestion of buildings. For 
commercial and industrial areas each building is con- 
sidered individually. Items considered include number 
of stories, floor area, construction materials, distance 
separating buildings, nature of occupancy, and utiliza- 
tion of private fire systems such as sprinklers, or actual 
fire fighting equipment and personnel and residence. 

The fire flow requirements, stated in gallons per minute, 
must be sustainable or over a period of time, expressed 
in hours, in order to insure that a fire may be controlled 
The fire flow requirements and duration requirements are 
also illustrated in Table 9. 



Analysis 

With the exception of LaCrosse, each of the municipalities 
in Alachua County have public water supply systems operated by 
the respective cities. In many cases, however, these systems 
are extensions of existing systems, laid, in some cases, as 
long as fifty years ago. Exact knowledge of the location of 
lines and the size of water mains is often lacking. The 
following synopsis of the water supply system for each city is 
taken from the 1974 Water and Sewer Development Plan. 

Alachua - The existing water system of Alachua consists of two 
deep wells, one at 350 gpm, and the other at 600 gpm. Water is 
chlorinated prior to being pumped into the system. This system 



-63- 



includes one 60,000 and one 200,000 gallon elevated storage 

tank and a metered distribution system complete with fire protection 

apertinences . 

Archer - The existing water facilities for Archer consist of a 
deep well, a 350 gpm pump, a 75,000 gallon elevated storage tank, 
and a metered water distribution system complete with fire pro- 
tection apertinences in and along the built up areas of the city. 

Hawthorne - The existing water facilities include a distribution 
system, a 75,000 gallon elevated storage tank, and two water 
supply wells. The main well has a rated capacity of 450 gpm, 
and the second or standby well has a capacity of 350 gpm. 

High Springs - The current water facilities include two wells, 
each rated at 4 25 gpm. Ground storage of treated water con- 
sists of a 44,000 gallon clear well, and an elevated storage 
consisting of a 250,000 gallon elevated storage tank. The 
treated water is pumped into the metered distribution system 
which also contains fire protection apertinences. 

Newberry - The current municipal water system serves 4 68 
connections. This system includes two wells, each with a 
rated capacity of 600 gpm, and an elevated storage tank of 
60,000 gallon capacity. Each well has chlorination facilities. 
Fire protection and a metered distribution system are also pro- 
vided. 

Micanopy - The existing water facilities for Micanopy include a 
350 gpm water supply well, an elevated storage tank of 7 5,000 
gallon capacity, and a metered distribution system. 



-64- 



Waldo - The existing water facilities for Waldo consist of a 
deep well, a 350 gpm pump with auxiliary drive, a 75,000 gallon 
elevated storage tank, and a metered water distribution system 
consisting of eight inch, six inch, and smaller transmission 
mains and fire protection apertinences . This system serves 
most of the central core and possibly the central residential 
area of the city. 

Gainesville - The water distribution system consists of water 
mains from six inches to thirty inches in diameter, and covers 
a service area of approximately 35 square miles. Elevated 
storage of the system consists of a 500,000 gallon tank on 
N.W. 5th Avenue, and a 100,000 elevated tank on N.W. 5th Avenue, 
and a 100,000 elevated tank on N.W. 16th Avenue. The distribu- 
tion system is metered. 

Conclusions 

Quoting again from the Water and Sewer Development Plan: 

In Alachua County there are presently 14 privately 
owned utility systems, each serving 25 or more people. 
Of these, 38 are trailer parks with privately owned water 
systems serving 3,500 people. Another 18 systems sell 
water. With, but a few exceptions, this water is untreated. 
Most of these privately owned water systems have what might 
be considered marginal facilities. While most of these fa- 
cilities are capable of meeting average demands, they are 
not capable of meeting anticipated peak demands by 1990, 
and adequate fire protection. Most of these systems have 
no back-up facilities provided. 

It is recommended, wherever feasible, for the Regional 
Utilities Board to provide service to these areas, and 
that these inadequate systems be abandoned. 



-65- 



Recommendations 

1. The alternative proposals for the provision of ade- 
quate water supply as noted in the 1974 Water and Sewer De- 
velopment Plan be considered by the respective cities, and a 
plan chosen for implementation. 

2. Public water systems be implemented to replace private 
wells as the primary source of water, particularly as pertinent 
to fire protection services. 



-66- 



Water Distribution Systems 

ri'.-.).'i/ ':'-i^'v3 'fseiris. no&e ni en.:.-.. . .Dsari£>:ini 3fi:j rfj-jiv? asrloni 

Objecti ves 
^i;c o-., :'^:idB slqioniiaq arid no bss- ■^-'' ilBxi? :^ni, rrrr t-v^-'bI -io 

The major objective in the provision of a water distri- 
bution system is that it meet the recognized standards for 
fire protection. Secondly, that water distribution lines be 
layed as part of an overall system which is designed with 
consideration for future growth and urbanization. 

^r.., ,-^ . ;>^ 9T>s:?n9Dieq rlpxfi & :f&,d^ bo:io.. v... .:,.;.^..... ... 

Standards 

The ISO standards schedule, with reference to water 
mains and the distribution system for residential areas, 

sets forth the following standards: 

3Sie Dili; unoxjL..). - -isLiBma s/,:- • 

1.' six inches is considered the minimum size of 

r.:^j,i ::. - ayr^oni xxe 

pipe satisfactory for hydrant supply in resi- 

'' dential areas 

2." Six inch and smaller mains supply in hydrants 
shall not be installed as dead-ins or arranged 
as dead-ins at service limits 

3, The grid of minor distributors supply in resi- 
dential districts shall consist of mains at 
least six inches in size arranged so that the 
lengths of the longer sides of blocks between 
intersecting mains do not exceed six hundred ^..^ 

feet. , r -, 

ai asl:iio -Dllsrm siij nlnsj.'^ anx^ji; ;ieiBW Lis 5o ssxs bas 



•67-^ 



The following standards are noted for high value districts: 

In high value districts, the minimum size shall be eight 
inches with the intersecting mains in each street; twelve inch 
or larger mains shall be used on the principle streets and 
for all lines that are not connected to other mains at in- 
tervals close enough for proper mutual support. 



Analysis 

It should be noted that a high percentage of the HUD 
area has or is planned to have an adequate distribution system, 
Long-range plans suggest that water mains may be branching 
out from Gainesville to each of the smaller communities. 

In the smaller cities, the exact locations and size 
of water distribution lines is often not known, except for 
six inches in diameter; however, portions of the cities 
are being served by smaller lines, in some cases, two inches 
and four inches. It is, therefore, questionable whether 
these areas currently being served by water mains smaller 
than six inches in diameter can be expected to have fire 
hydrants located there and, therefore whether all areas can 
receive adequate fire protection. 



Conclusions 



Efforts should be made to determine the exact location 
and size of all water mains within the smaller cities in 
order that an evaluation of needs for new or additional lines 



-68- 



can be made. Following such an evaluation, or when new 
pipe is layed, consideration should be given to future 
growth patterns so that future populations and development 
areas may have a water supply system adequate to meet fire 
protection needs. 



Recommendations 

1. Identification of location and size of water mains 
in each of the respective cities, specifically the smaller 
cities 

2. Where existing lines are less than six inches, 
plans should be made for the installation of new lines of 
at least six inches in diameter 

3 . Consideration of trends of growth in development 

or annexation patterns should be incorporated in any planning 
process for new or additional distribution lines. 



Fire Hydrants 



Objectives 

A. Hydrants should be able to deliver adequate amounts 
of water at adequate pressures 

B. The hydrants should be located in readily accessible 
places near the building to be protected 



-69- 



C. Hydrants should be placed with consideration to their 
possible use, as reflected in hazardous localities. The hy- 
drants should be spaced so as to avoid excessive hose lengths. 

Standards 

A. Hydrants should be able to deliver 250 gallons per 
minute through each two and a half inch outlet with a pressure 
loss of not more than three-quarter pounds for two-way: two 
and a quarter pounds for three-way; and four pounds for four- 
way hydrants, in a total loss of five pounds between street 
mains and the outlets. In addition to two and a half inch 
outlets, hydrants should also have a large suction connection. 
Hydrants must be of such design that if the hydrant barrel 

is broken off, the hydrant will remain closed. Street 
connections must not be less than six inches in diameter. 

B. Hydrants shall conform to American Water Works 
Association Standard for Dry Barrel Fire Hydrants (AWWA 
C502) . In mild climates well designed wet-barrel hydrants 
may be used. Hydrants shall have at least two outlets; one 
outlet shall be a pumper outlet and other outlets shall be 
at least 2 1/2-inch nominal size. Street connection shall 
be not less than six inches in diameter. Hose threads on 
outlets preferably should conform to National Standard 
dimensions . 

C. Hydrants should not be distributed more than 300 to 
400 feet from the buildings to be protected. 

D. One hydrant should be placed near each street in- 
tersection, and intermediate hydrants set where the distance 
between the intersections exceeds 350 to 400 feet. 



-70- 



Fire Flow 

Required, 

gpm 


1, 


,0 00 or 
less 


1, 


,500 


2, 


,000 


2, 


,500 


3, 


,000 


3. 


,500 


4. 


,000 


4. 


,500 


5< 


,000 


5, 


,500 


6. 


,000 


6. 


,500 


-7. 


,000 


7. 


,500 


8, 


,000 


8< 


,500 


9, 


,000 


10 


,000 


11 


,000 


12 


,000 



TABLE 1 
STANDARD HYDRANT DISTRIBUTION 



Average Area Approximate Distance 
per Hydrant, Between Hydrants, 
square feet in feet* 



160,000 400 

150,000 387 

140,000 374 

130,000 361 

120,000 346 

110,000 332 

100,000 316 

95,000 308 

90,000 300 

85,000 292 

80,000 283 

75,000 274 

"*-70,000 *-265 

65,000 255 

60,000 245 

57,500 240 

55,000 235 

50,000 224 

45,000 212 

40,000 200 



Source : Grading Schedule for Municipal Fire Protection , 
Insurance Services Office, New York: 1973. 



* Figures are rounded to nearest foot. 



-71- 



Three major reasons for establishing these standards 
are given. First, hose lines greater than 400 to 500 feet 
long are inefficient and a source of delay. Second, friction 
losses incurred by long hoses use up pressure available in 
hose lines at a rapid rate, reducing the water stream and its 
effectiveness. Third, if hydrants are spaced 500 feet or 
more apart, the effective capacity of pumpers is reduced be- 
cause of the higher pressure they must deliver. Table 
gives the approximate distances between hydrants and is 
determined by fire flow requirements. 



Analysis 

Chapter 13-6.1 of the Code of Ordinances of the City of 
Gainesville state the following: 



1. No portion of a building shall be more than 
three hundred and fifty feet (350) from an approved 
fire hydrant. 

2. Fire hydrants shall be located in such a 
manner as to be readily accessible by fire engines, 
and in such manner that a fire hose may be run from 
the fire hydrant to any portion of a building within 
three hundred and fifty feet (350) of such fire hydrant 

3. No fire hydrant will be approved if any ob- 
struction such as a fence, wall, canal, creek, swimming 
pool, structure or any type of interference which is 
situated between the fire hydrant and the improvements 
which are intended to be served with fire protection 
lying within three hundred and fifty feet (350) of a 
fire hydrant. 



The Alachua County zoning regulations, under the section 
dealing with residential districts, states that: 



-72- 



All R2 , R2A, R3 multiple family districts-- shall have 
operating fire hydrants located no farther than 500 
feet from any building on the development plan. 



The County zoning regulations also indicate that hydrant 
spacing within trailer parks will be at a one thousand foot 
maximum . 

The spacing of hydrants in the smaller communities 
varies, as indicated below: 

Alachua - Hydrants are spaced approximately every 3 00 
feet within the city limits. Hydrants are 
supplied by six inch and eight inch water 
mains . 

Archer - 1,000 feet is the maximum distance allowed 
between hydrants, according to City Codes. 
The majority of water mains supplying these 
hydrants are six inches, with some eight 
inch mains . Hydrant coverage extends to the 
city limits. 



Hawthorne - 



No code specifications for hydrant spacing 
exists, although there is one hydrant for 
every block with blocks of varying lengths. 
Most hydrants are served by six inch water 
mains, with some two inch stand-pipes in the 
fringe areas. 



High Springs - 



No code specifications exist in High Springs 
and hydrants are spaced relatively at random, 
A pattern of every 300 feet was established 
and dropped several years ago, and a general 



-73- 



understanding exists that hydrants 
should not be placed greater than 
1,000 feet apart. 

Micanopy - Spacing is every 400 to 500 feet along a six 
inch water main that loops the city limits. 
Two hydrants serve the downtown area, and 
two inch stand-pipes are used throughout the 
area . 

Newberry - The city limits are covered by hydrants spaced 
approximately every 600 feet. Water mains are 
predominantly six inches in diameter, with a 
few smaller (four inch) lines in use. 

Waldo - The city limits are served by hydrants, although 
the exact spacing is not known. Some six inch 
and some two inch water mains serve this area. 



Conclusions 



A distance of 1,000 feet between hydrants is considered to 
be too far to allow fire companies to effectively suppress fires. 
As noted earlier, hose lengths greater than 4 00 to 500 feet are a 
source of delay when laying, and the friction losses incurred 
in lines that long over-burden the effective capacity of pumpers. 
In residential areas requiring a 2,000 gallon per minute fire 
flow, hydrants should be located every 38 to 4 00 feet. This is 
especially the case in the unincorporated areas of the Gainesville 
Urban Area . 



-74- 



The 1,000 foot maximum distance separating hydrants in 
trailer parks is likewise considered too far. A trailer fire 
may last a relatively short time, and reaching the fire and 
laying 500 feet of hose line may result in the loss of the 
trailer. With trailers becoming more popular, consideration 
must be given to altering existing codes to insure the safety 
of trailer residents. Reducing the distance between hydrants 
in trailer parks to 400 feet and requiring trailer parks to 
have fire fighting equipment, such as portable extinguishers, 
in residence and prominantly marked, should enhance the fire 
safety of the areas. 

In the smaller communities, consideration should be 
given to spacing hydrants no greater than 500 feet apart, so 
that no building would be farther than 25 feet from a hydrant 
Future growth should be considered when planning hydrant lo- 
cations . 



Recommendations 



1. Hydrants should be spaced so that any portion of 
a building is no greater than 200 feet from a 
hydrant. Hydrant spacing should be closer in 
high value districts and downtown CBD's, in 
accordance with established ISO standards. 

2. Trailer parks should have fire fighting equipment 
in residence, prominantly located and marked. This 
equipment should consist of at least portable fire 
extinguishers. 



-75- 



3. Smaller communities should space hydrants 400 feet 
apart throughout the city limits. 

4 . County codes should be altered to call for hydrants 
to be spaced no greater than 400 feet apart in resi- 
dential areas and in trailer parks. 



COMMUNICATIONS 



A sound and reliable communications network is a vital 
component to any fire protection system. The communication 
link is of primary importance for the reporting of fires and 
the dispatching of necessary equipment and personnel to the 
correct location. Adequate manpower, or supply, hydrants, 
and sophisticated equipment are of little use without a 
communications system to link them all together quickly. 

The two basic components of an adequate communications 
system are (1) an alarm system - a reliable means of reporting 
fires; and (2) communications headquarters - a central unit 
where alarms are received, response is initiated (dispatch of 
equipment and personnel) and communication links are main- 
tained between headquarters, response units, and other safety 
departments in the field. 



Alarm Systems 



Generally speaking, alarms are reported by three primary 
methods : 



-76- 



1. Telephones 

2 . Emergency Alarm Box 

3. Private Alarm System 



Objectives 



The primary objective of all alarm systems is that the 
system provide a quick, reliable and easily accessible method 
of reporting fires. 



Standards 



A. The means of reporting fires to the Fire Department should 
be within a few minutes of any person within the metro- 
politan area. 

B. The means of reporting fires should be availble at all times. 

C. The means of reporting fires should be as simple as possible 
to avoid confusion as to the location of the fire and to avoid 
delay in reporting it. 

D. The ISO standard schedule indicates the following standards 
for the distribution of alarm boxes. 

1. Alarm boxes must be visible from and within 500 feet 
of every building in high value, merchantile, manu- 
facturing and warehouse districts and within 8 00 feet 
along thoroughfares of every important building elsewhere. 



■11- 



2. Public alarm boxes shall be accessible and conspicu- 
ous with lights on or close to the boxes. 

3. Ideally, transmission cables should be underground. 



Item Analysis 



A. Telephone . The telephone is a rapid and convenient method 
of reporting fires and is also the method most readily accessible 
to the general public and businesses. There are, nevertheless, 
some drawbacks to the use of the telephone as the sole means of 
reporting fires which indicates the need that they be comple- 
mented with some additional means of registering alarms. 

Alachua County is now the first county in the nation to 
have the 911 emergency phone number system in operation county- 
wide (with the temporary exception of the Archer exchange, a 
situation which should be remedied shortly) , This system 
allows any citizen to be in touch with an emergency communi- 
cations unit simply by dialing 911, significantly reducing 
time needed to report a fire or other emergency by telephone. 
Since the number is small, it is easier to remember, requires 
less dialing time and is simple enough for a computer. At 
present, there are two receiving units for this 911 system. 
Any 911 call originated in the Gainesville Urban Area, or on 
a 37- exchange is automatically routed to the emergency communi- 
cation headquarters at Fire Station #1. Any 911 call originated 
outside of the Gainesville Urban Area is routed to the Sheriff's 
Communications Headquarters in the basement of the County Court- 
house . 



-78- 



The use of telephones and the 911 system works well in 
residential areas during all times of the day and night. How- 
ever, this is not the case for high value districts, industrial 
warehouses and commercial office building areas. At night, in 
these areas, there are fewer people, if any, present who could 
report a fire by phone. Furthermore, public telephones may 
not be available within reasonable distance or at all. Parti- 
cularly in these areas alarm boxes should be provided. 

Telephones may be of little benefit in low income resi- 
dential areas where telephones may be unavailable to many resi- 
dents. In all areas, reliance upon telephones as the sole means 
of reporting fires could be hampered by broken lines or other 
mechanical failures. It becomes apparent that the telephone is 
not without limitation and should be complemented with other 
alarm systems . 

Unfortunately, in the smaller communities the telephone 
is the sole means of reporting a fire. In each of these 
communities a volunteer fire department responds to telephone 
alarms. A telephone alarm usually comes in to City Hall or the 
fire station where there is at least one person on duty at all 
times during the day. In some areas there is a special telephone 
line connecting several residences and/or businesses together, all 
of which answer to the same phone number. The fire chief usually 
arranges for someone to be available at one of these phones at 
all times, so that an alarm called in at any time will be re- 
ceived and answered promptly. Calling one number rings all the 
extension phones. 

There are several limitations to this telephone alarm system, 
First, the person reporting the fire must have access to or know 
the correct phone number to call and must have a phone nearby to 
use. Secondly, the receiver of the call must record the location 



-79- 



of the fire, key the city sirens to announce the fire, call the 
fire chief and the volunteers, and in some cases, start the 
truck or drive it himself. Some cities do have "alarm phones" 
in the volunteer's homes or places of business which are linked 
in such a manner that when one number is called, all volunteer 
phones ring. However, should a volunteer be away from the phone 
at the time of an alarm, he must respond to the siren, call the 
central office to find the location of the fire, and then proceed 
there as soon as possible. This increases the time lapse be- 
tween initiation of the alarm and the response. Third, the 
high value areas and central business district (CBD) are left 
virtually unprotected at night or on weekends, unless separate 
individual alarm systems are in operation, or separate fire 
protection systems (such as sprinklers and/or in-house fire de- 
partments) are present. Clearly, a back-up alarm system would 
be a significant asset. 

B. Emergency Alarm Boxes . Emergency alarm boxes located in 
conspicuous places can overcome some of the disadvantages of 
complete reliance on telephones for reporting fires. Where 
few telephones are available, call boxes provide quick public 
access, and are available 24 hours a day. Alarm boxes indicate 
to the fire department dispatcher exactly where the alarm is 
coming from, thus avoiding any complications of receiving vague 
or confusing information from the caller. In addition, modern 
boxes are telephone equipped which allow the caller to furnish 
a description of the incident, giving the dispatcher some indi- 
cation of the type and magnitude of trouble. 

The City of Gainesville is the only municipality in the 
county with alarm boxes in operation. These boxes are red and 
white, are highly visible, with a red and white sign indicating 
the box as containing an emergency telephone. These boxes are 



■80- 



prominantly located on telephone poles at major intersections 
and many streets within residential areas. Ref.er to riap 2. 

As noted, these alarm boxes extend only to the city limits 
of Gainesville and do not, for instance, carry out into the 
urbanized, unincorporated areas of the Gainesville Urban Area. 
Consequently, a large proportion of the Gainesville Urban Area 
(approximately 28% of the population in the area) does not have 
the benefit of emergency alarm boxes. 

Similar situations exist in the smaller cities. Although 
the cost of widespread installation of these boxes and the appro- 
priate communications network may be cost prohibitive for these 
cities, locating these boxes within these CBD's and near industrial 
and merchantile areas should be considered. 

C. Private Alarm Systems . Frequently, owners of large private 
properties and business concerns will install private alarm 
systems terminating at the local fire station or communications 
headquarters. Private companies may also offer to make avail- 
able such monitoring services . 

In the Gainesville Urban Area, 19 business establishments 
have private alarm systems terminating at and monitored by the 
Gainesville Fire Department headquarters. The Fire Department 
furnishes a cabinet for the equipment (at a minimal charge of 
$10.00), and monitors the circuits for the respective businesses. 
Of the 19 alarms now being monitored, most are for department 
stores or large storage areas, as well as several hospitals. For 
the most part, the existing alarm systems were installed in accord- 
ance with the Code of Ordinances of the City of Gainesville, pur- 
suant to Chapter 9 of the Southern Standard Building Code, which 
indicates the following: 



-81- 




2. Extent of Coverage by Emergency Alarm Boxes, Gainesville Urban Area 



901.6 - General 



Approved automatic sprinkler equipment meeting the 
requirements of this Section shall be installed in build- 
ings as follows: 

(1) Basements or cellars with ceiling less than 
4 '6" above grade having floor areas exceeding 2,500 
square feet when used as workshops or for the manufac- 
ture, repair, sale or storage of combustible materials. 



901.7 - Commercial Garages 



Approved automatic sprinkler systems shall be pro- 
vided in the following garages: 

(1) Enclosed parking garages over 65 feet in height 
and exceeding 10,000 square feet per floor. 

(2) Repair garages over one story in height, and 
exceeding 10,000 square feet per floor, or located below 
another occupancy. 

(3) One story repair garages exceeding 15,000 square 
feet. 

(4) Basement or sub-basement garages below other 
occupancies having a capacity of more than three motor 
vehicles or exceeding 5,000 square feet in area. 

(5) Garages used for the storage of commercial 
trucks and having an area exceeding 5,000 square feet. 

(6) Bus garages over two stories in height. 



901.8 - Other Occupancy Sprinkler Requirements 

(A) - Group "B-2" - Business-Mercantile 

An approved automatic sprinkler system shall be pro- 
vided in stores and similar occupancies where stocks of 
combustible materials are on display for public sale and 
where the story floor area exceeds 20,000 square feet. 



■83- 



(B) - Group "D-2" - Institutional 

Approved automatic sprinkler systems shall be pro- 
vided in all convalescent or nursing homes two or more 
stories in ehight and having more than ten patients. 

(C) - Group "E-1" - Large Assembly Occupancy 

An approved automatic sprinkler system shall be 
provided in Group E-1 Large Assembly Occupancies over 
areas which could be used for the display, sale or 
storage or combustible materials when such display, 
sale or storage floor area exceeds 20,000 square feet. 

901.9 - Supervisory Facilities 

(a) The automatic sprinkler system shall, whenever 
possible, be provided with approved facilities to assure 
that it is in proper operative condition, such as by 
electrical connections to a continuously manned central 
station or fire department headquarters to give auto- 
matic notice of any closed water supply valve or other 
condition that might interfere with the operation of 
the system; also notice of any flow of water in the 
system due to fire or other cause. Such facilities 
shall include provision for immediate alarm to the 

fire department in case of fire or suspected fire, and 
appropriate immediate action to restore the sprinkler 
system to operative condition in case of any impairment. 

(b) Subject to the approval of the authorities 
concerned, sprinkler supervision may also be provided 
by direct connection to fire departments, or in the 
case of very large establishments to a private head- 
quarters providing similar functions. 

Alachua County also subscribes to the Southern Standard 
Building Code. 

Outside of the Gainesville Urban Area there are no private 
alarm systems connected to or monitored by any of the volunteer 
fire departments in the smaller cities. However, at least one 
private enterprise on the county does have its own fire protection 
crew, as well as a sprinkler system. 



-84- 



In addition to, and in most cases, in conjunction with 
private alarm systems, sprinkler systems are used which are 
activated thermostatically or by noting the presence of 
smoke. No data is currently available from the Fire Depart- 
ment or any other source as to how many buildings in the 
county have sprinkler systems installed and operated, with 
the exception of the 19 business concerns who do have alarm 
systems monitored by the Fire Department. Some sprinkler 
systems are so designed that a fire department pumper truck 
can hook into the system from an external joint increasing 
the amount of water flowing through the sprinkler heads. 



Conclusions on Alarm Systems 



An alarm system that uses various reporting methods is 
desirable. It is apparent that no single method of reporting 
fires is infallible, that no single method provides the degree 
of accessibility and reliability needed in a populated area. 
A variety of reporting methods should be employed in an area 
to insure that alarms may be received in time for the fire 
fighting crews to respond and suppress the fire before damage 
to life and property becomes extensive. Specifically: 



Emergency Alarm Boxes 

In highly urbanized areas there should be a system of alarm 
boxes. While the cost of v/idespread installation may be cost 
prohibitive, particularly for the smaller municipalities, select- 
ed placement based on the following criteria would provide a 
sufficient alarm system in localities where the need is greatest: 



-85- 



1. High value districts; downtown areas, shopping 
center, warehouse areas; 

2. Residential areas that average 15 or more persons 
per acre and meet one or more of the following 
qualifications : 

a. where there is less than one telephone per 
four dwelling units; 

b. high hazard neighborhoods, because of the 
type of construction and density, such as 
wood frame buildings with two or more floors 
which may house two or more families; 

3. Mobile home parks; 

4. Along major arterial streets passing through urban 
areas of 15 or more persons per acre; or major 
arterial streets where there is a high rate of 
traffic accidents; 

5. At all interchanges of interstate and local express- 
ways alarm call boxes could be used to allow the re- 
porting of accidents as well as fires. These could 
be located at traffic lights or access ramps for 
simple identification and location by the public. 

6. Emergency alarm call boxes should be located at or 
near all public schools or institutions located in 
the county. 



-86- 



911 Emergency Phone Number System 

This system is now operational in all areas of the county 
except the Archer exchange. It is expected that the Archer 
exchange will be added to the system in the very near future, 
thereby providing true county-wide coverage . 



Private Alarm Systems 

Pursuant to the codes as stated in Sections 4 and 9 of 
tlie Southern Standard Building Code, sprinklers and alarm 
systems should be installed in all buildings meeting the 
stated criteria. Although no specific mention is made of 
these buildings in the building code, it is felt that all 
government buildings and public buildings, such as libraries 
and schools and community recreation centers should also have 
sprinkler alarm systems installed. Commercial enterprises 
located outside of the Gainesville Urban Area should have an 
alarm system monitored by, or linked to, the nearest volunteer 
fire department. 



Recommendations 



Emergency alarm boxes be installed throughout the Gaines- 
ville Urban Area in accordance with the standards and 
criteria suggested under the Conclusions to this section; 
specifically for high density and high value areas, inter- 
state interchanges and major arterial intersections with 
high accident rates. 



•87- 



2. Emergency alarm boxes be installed in the high value 
districts of the smaller municipalities, as well as at 
the intersections of major thoroughfares with the local 
street systems. 

3. Emergency alarm boxes be installed at or near all public 
schools in the county. 

4. All commercial and industrial developments outside of the 
Gainesville Urban Area should be encouraged to install pri- 
vate sprinkler systems, and alarm systems that will termi- 
nate at the nearest volunteer fire department. 

5. All public telephones should conspicuously display a sign 
explaining the location of that booth, identifying the 
nearest intersection. 



Communications Headquarters 



The office that receives an alarm and directs the appro- 
priate manpower and equipment to the scene is considered to be 
the communication headquarters. 



Objectives 



The objectives of the communication headquarters is to 
provide an effective means of rapid communications between the 
operating units of the department and the devices which provide 
the prompt reporting of fires and other emergencies to that 
department . 



-88- 



standards 



A. Equipment upon which the receipt and transmission of 
alarms are dependent shall be housed securely and protected 
against fire or damage from other sources, including earthquakes. 

B. Equipment shall be such as to insure reliable receipt, 
transmission, and recording of alarms, including alarms by voice 
where used, as specified in the standard, and be properly in- 
stalled and in good condition. 

C. Sufficient equipment shall be installed to promptly 
serve the number of boxes and other facilities needed for pro- 
tection of commercial districts. 

D. Fire alarm operators shall be able to maintain radio 
communications, using suitable established procedures, with fire 
companies and a central fire department and all personnel away 
from their quarters in order to permit more effective and effi- 
cient operations, including the recall or reassignment of com- 
panies to other alarms, reports from and between units on the 
fire grounds, and contact with units on in-service inspections 
and training. 

E. Sufficient circuits from the commercial telephone system 
shall be provided specifically for receiving fire calls and be 
specifically listed in the telephone company directory. Tele- 
phone alarms from the public shall be transmitted to a specific 
location in all cases and not to any individual fire company. 
A device shall be provided for automatically recording all commu- 
nications of an emergency nature received by telephone and be 
arranged for immediate playback. 



-89- 



F. Operators shall be competent, familiar with the 
facilities provided, and adequate in number for handling all 
alarms as required by the standard. The handling of all calls 
including those related to fire and other emergencies shall be 
considered in determining the number of operators to be on duty. 



Analysis 



There are 13 fire stations serving the public in Alachua 
County, eight of which are volunteer fire departments in the 
smaller communities. For these eight communities, fire alarms 
may now be received through the use of the 911 emergency tele- 
phone system, which will place a caller in touch with the 
Sheriff's Communications Headquarters located in the basement 
of the County Courthouse. When an emergency call is received 
the dispatcher will determine the appropriate agency to handle 
the case, and will cross-patch the call to that agency. Even- 
tually, a dispatcher in the Central Communications Headquarters 
will have the ability to key the fire alarm siren in any of the 
smaller communities while coincidentally dispatching the call to 
the appropriate volunteer fire department. 

The remaining fire stations serving the City of Gaines- 
ville and the Gainesville Urban Area have one communications 
headquarters to receive alarms, dispatch personnel and equip- 
ment, and communicate with the operating units in the field 
and other public safety units. This communications headquarters 
is located to the rear of Fire Station #1 on Main Street. 



-90- 



Conclusions 



When an alarm is received, and the equipment and personnel 
dispatched, at present there is no way for the dispatcher or the 
personnel in route to be aware of any special hazards inherent 
to the fire, such as the construction of the building, points of 
entry, whether or not special chemicals will be needed to suppress 
the fire, or indeed whether or not water is an appropriate medium 
for fire suppression. Collection, storage and maintenance of 
such data will provide fire fighters at the scene with information 
necessary for the use of appropriate fire fighting and rescue 
techniques. 

Such a system of data collection and storage exists in 
Charlotte, North Carolina and it is worthy of discussion and 
consideration here. The Charlotte Integrated Municipal Infor- 
mation System has, as one of its components, a Fire Operations 
Module designed to provide the fire department with information 
valuable in determining the best methods of fire suppression 
and rescue. Inherent to this system is a mechanism for collecting 
data for any potential fire site and periodic updates. Informa- 
tion is collected in the field by survey groups and includes the 
following data: 

Street address 

Unit address 

Owner and phone number 

Responsible party and phone number 

Nature of occupancy by time of day 

Category of occupants (elderly, child, invalid, & total) 

Fire hazardous materials present - located hazardous 

materials both within and outside the buildings 
Building openings - records types and location of openings 

in building 
Utility shutoff - location and type of shutoff valves present 

within or outside the building 



-91- 



Sprinkler connections - located connections to the 
sprinkler system within or outside the building 

Hydrants - gives location of primary, secondary and 
tertiary fire hydrants, including the size of the 
water mains servicing the hydrant and also the water 
supply 

Fire incident - records date and identity of each pre- 
vious fire incident. 



The above data must be collected manually, and collection 
is an on-going process to maintain accuracy of data. This data 
is then fed into a computer for storage and retrieval when needed 

In addition, each building is marked with a code combining 
colors and numbers which tells the arriving fire fighting team 
whether or not water may be used in suppressing the fire in that 
particular building. This color and number code will also iden- 
tify special or hazardous materials present. 

When an alarm is received, the dispatcher feeds the address 
of the fire into the computer and the response is a display on 
a visual display screen of the data mentioned previously. This 
data is then relayed by a radio to the personnel in route. 

There are numerous drawbacks to this system. To be affect- 
ive, the response time of the computer from the point at which 
the address is fed into the computer and the point of information 
displayed must be fast enough to actually be of some aid to the 
fire fighters. The Charlotte Fire Department has requested a 
maximum response time of ten seconds for 95% of all calls; how- 
ever, this is not yet guaranteed. Secondly, there is the cost 
of implementing such a system, including not only the man hours 
required to collect the necessary data, but also the time, money 
and expertise required to computerize the data and have it at 
ready access 24 hours a day. Thirdly, relaying the data from 



•92- 



the dispatcher to the personnel in the field is another time 
consuming step which should be eliminated. There are systems 
(few in number, however) which have or are experimenting with 
visual display screens in the trucks themselves. This would 
be desirable although probably quite expensive. 

This system, or one similar to it, should be considered 
by the Fire Department serving the metropolitan area of Gaines- 
ville. The value of such a system may not be obvious at first, 
however, the expected growth in the area warrants consideration 
of such a project. 



Recommendations 



1. As long as the 911 emergency telephone number system 
is in operation for the reporting of all fire and non-fire 
emergencies, one communications headquarters for the entire 
county area is desirable. The elimination of all unnecessary 
time delays, and the coordination of all public safety units 
in the field, are the primary considerations in recommending 
one communications center. 



Fire Station Distribution 



Objectives 



The primary objective in a fire station distribution design 
is to locate the fire stations and fire engine and ladder engine 



•93- 



companies in such a manner as to insure that the urban area has 
adequate coverage, as set forth in the ISO standards. 



Standards 



Standards established by ISO for the distribution of fire 
engine and ladder companies vary within a city or urban area 
according to the required fire flow in respective districts. 
Generally, however, the distribution patterns for these com- 
panies are as indicated in Table 11. As implied by this table, 
distribution of fire engine and. ladder companies are contingent 
upon land use activity and density, which are then reflected in 
the fire flow requirements. The anticipated locations of such 
high value districts as multi-family, residential, commercial, 
institutional, and manufacturing and warehousing are significant 
assumptions to be considered when placing fire stations. 



Analysis 



Gainesville Urban Area . The Gainesville Urban Area is 
currently served by five fire stations, all located within and 
operated by the City of Gainesville. The location of these 
stations is illustrated in Map 3, along with a general indica- 
tion of the effective response areas of each station. 

These response areas are based upon one, one and a half 
and two mile concentric circles as suggested by the distribution 
standards. These response areas are somewhat misleading, however, 
since they indicate a radius taken by a straight line from each 
fire station, while in fact, response distance and response time 



-94- 



3. Fire Station Locations, 
Gainesville Urban Area 



companies in such a manner as to insure that the urban area has 
adequate coverage, as set forth in the ISO standards. 



Standards 



Standards established by ISO for the distribution of fire 
engine and ladder companies vary within a city or urban area 
according to the required fire flow in respective districts. 
Generally, however, the distribution patterns for these com- 
panies are as indicated in Table 11. As implied by this table, 
distribution of fire engine and. ladder companies are contingent 
upon land use activity and density, which are then reflected in 
the fire flow requirements. The anticipated locations of such 
high value districts as multi-family, residential, commercial, 
institutional, and manufacturing and warehousing are significant 
assumptions to be considered when placing fire stations. 



Analysis 



Gainesville Urban Area . The Gainesville Urban Area is 
currently served by five fire stations, all located within and 
operated by the City of Gainesville. The location of these 
stations is illustrated in Map 3, along with a general indica- 
tion of the effective response areas of each station. 

These response areas are based upon one, one and a half 
and two mile concentric circles as suggested by the distribution 
standards. These response areas are somewhat misleading, however, 
since they indicate a radius taken by a straight line from each 
fire station, while in fact, response distance and response time 



-94- 




3. Fire Station Locations, Gainesville Urban Area 



TABLE 11 
DISTRIBUTION STANDARDS FOR ENGINE AND LADDER COMPANIES 

A. Residential Area, Standard Response Distance 
Optimum Service Radius 
Engine Company Ladder Company 



1.5 miles 



2.0 miles 



4.0 miles 



2.0 miles A residential district 
requiring 2,000 G.P.M. 
or more f j.re flow or 
having buildings three 
or more stories in height 

3.0 miles A residential district 
requiring 2,000 G.P.M. 
or less fire flow with 
an average separation 
of structures being 
less than 100 feet. 

4.0 miles A residential district 
requiring 2,000 G.P.M. 
or less fire flow and 
exhibiting low density 
with a separation of 
100 feet or more between 
structures. 



B. 



High. Value Area, Standard Response Distance 
Optimum Service Radius 



Engine Company 
0.75 miles 



Ladder Company 



1.0 miles 



1.0 miles 



1.5 miles 



1.75 miles 



2.0 miles 



h high value district with- 
in a regional or subregional 
business district requiring 
a fire flov/ of 9,000 G.P.M. 
or more . 

A high value district re- 
quiring a fire flow from 
4,500 G.P.M. to 9,000 G.P.M. 

A high value district re- 
quiring a fire flow less than 
4,500 G.P.M. 



Source: American Insurance Association (National Board of 
Fire Underwriters) , Fire Department Standards : 
Distribution of Companies and Response to Alarms , 
Special Interest Bulletin No. 315~ January, 1963 . 



-96- 



should be measured along the actual path of travel. However, 
as an aid in visualizing general response areas-, this method 
will suffice. 

Fire protection services are provided to the unincor- 
porated areas around Gainesville under a contractural agreement 
between the City of Gainesville and Alachua County. As of 
1973, the Gainesville Fire Department guaranteed response to 
all fire alarms in the Gainesville Urban Area. In return, the 
County purchased one truck and pays the salary of the personnel 
needed to man it. This truck and the personnel are under the 
management of the City. 

Observation of the map indicates that the urbanized area 
outside of the City of Gainesville is beyond the effective 
response range of the existing fire stations. Several com- 
mercial areas, residential areas, industrial areas, as well 
as institutional and multi-story structures are therefore 
without adequate fire protection service. 

This point becomes more pronounced when the distribution 
of equipment and manpower at these stations is considered. As 
indicated in Table 12, there is currently only one ladder com- 
pany in the city, located at Fire Station #1 on Main Street. 
This ladder company is the only one currently available to 
answer calls at the University, any one of the four hospitals, 
or other multi-story buildings which would require ladder com- 
pany service. The relocation of Fire Station #2 to Northwest 
Fifth Avenue/Northwest 17th Street, however, should coincide 
with the establishment of another ladder company at that site. 
Ladder company service would, therefore, be expanded geographi- 
cally, and should provide adequate service to the University 
of Florida Campus as well as primary or secondary response to 
the V.A., Shands, or Alachua General Hospitals. Areas west of 



-97- 



TABLE 1 2 
FIRE STATION LOCATION, EQUIPMENT AND MANPOWER 
CITY OF GAINESVILLE 



Station # 


• 
Location 


Equipment 


Manpower* 


1 


4 27 S. Main 


1250 gal. pumper 

1000 gal. pumper 

100' areal ladder truck 

85' snorkel 

400 gal. grass fire 

truck 
3000 gal. tanker 
1000 gal. pumper 

(reserve) 


66 


2 


N.W. 10th St./ 
N.W. 4th Ave. 


1000 gal. pumper 


15 


3 


Waldo Road/ 
N.E. 10th Ave. 


1250 gal. pumper 


15 


4 


Newberry Road 


1250 gal. pumper 


18 


5 


1230 N.W. 30 
Ave. 


1250 gal. pumper 


12 




Airport Unit 


750 gal. pumper 
(special piece of 
equipment ordered 
for aircraft fire 
fighting) 


9 



TOTAL MANPOWER 



135 



♦Figures represent total manpower for 3 shifts. Total figure 
represents 3 shifts of 45 men per shift. 



-98- 



the city limits will not, however, have effective ladder 
company protection available. 



Smaller Communities . The smaller communities all have a 
volunteer fire department, with equipment and manpower as indi- 
cated in Table 13. The cities of Hawthorne, High Springs, Alachua, 
Archer and Newberry have some facility in which to store and main- 
tain their fire engine equipment. Waldo and Micanopy do not, 
at present, have such facilities, and their equipment is subject 
to the injustices of the weather. Plans have been made, however, 
to build such facilities in the near future. All cities have 
their equipment located in or near the downtown CBD, usually 
adjacent to or near the city hall. 

The Alachua County Department of Public Safety has divi- 
ded the county into public safety districts, relevant to fire 
protection and emergency medical and rescue service. The de- 
lineation of these districts is provided on Map 4 . Under this 
plan, which all the smaller communities participate in, with 
the exception of Hawthorne, each of the volunteer fire de- 
partments is responsible for providing fire protection service 
to the entire area in its assigned section. The county will 
purchase equipment, which will then be maintained and operated 
by the volunteers. In addition, the county gives each city a 
flat sum of $5,000 to provide this service to their district. 
A number of cities also have fire engines on a permanent loan 
basis from the County Forestry Service. 

These smaller cities are not large enough to economically 
sustain a permanent, full time fire department, equipment and 
personnel, nor are they projected to reach that point by 1990. 
The volunteer fire departments, coupled with the county fire 
districting plan, appears to be the best method of providing 



-99- 



TABLE 13 

FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT AND MANPOWER 
ALACHUA COUNTY 



CITY 



DEPT. 
POP.* STATUS 



EQUIP^ENT 



PERSONNEL 



ALACHUA 



ARCHER 



2,691 Volunteer: 

Fire District 
(F.D.) #10 

949 Volunteer: 
F.D. #7 



HAWTHORNE 1,333 



HIGH SPRINGS 2,944 



Volunteer: 
F.D. ft** 

Volunteer: 
F.D. #9 



NEWBERRY 1,332 Volunteer: 

F.D. #8 

MICAfJOPY 802 Volunteer: 

F.D. #6 and 
#5B 

WALDO 832 Volunteer: 

F.D. #3 



1,000 Gal. Truck 



1,000 Gal. Truck 
750 Gal. Pumper 
260 Gal. Mini- 
pump, C.B. Radio's 

500 Gal. Pumper 
750 Gal. Pumper 

1,250 Gal. Tanker 
750 Gal. Pumper 
550 Gal. Pumper 

750 Gal. Pumper 
450 Gal. Pumper 

1,800 Gal. Tanker 
500 Gal. Pumper 
750 Gal. Pumper 

500 Gal. Pumper 

300 Gal. Pumper 

1,600 Gal. Tanker 



20-22. 12 by direct 
phone hook-up. Cope- 
land has own. 

6; 5 residence phones; 
1 at foundry 



18 
18 



12- 
14 

20 



* Figures represent 1973 estimates by the North Central 
Florida Regional Planning Council 

** Hawthorne does not participate in county Fire Districting 
Plan. 



-100- 



4. Public Safety District, 
Alachua County 



TABLE 13 

FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT AiND MANPOWER 
ALACHUA COUNTY 



CITY 



DEPT. 
POP.* STATUS 



EQUIP^ENT 



PERSONNEL 



ALACHUA 



ARCHER 



2,691 Volunteer: 

Fire District 
(F.D.) #10 

949 Volunteer: 
F.D. #7 



HAWTHORNE 1,333 



HIGH SPRINGS 2,944 



Volunteer: 
F.D. #** 

Volunteer: 
F.D. #9 



NEWBERRY 1,352 Volunteer: 

F.D. #8 

MICATWPY 802 Volunteer: 

F.D. #6 and 
#5B 

WALDO 832 Volunteer: 

F.D. #3 



1,000 Gal. Truck 



1,000 Gal. Truck 
750 Gal. Pumper 
260 Gal. Mini- 
pump, C.B. Radio's 

500 Gal. Pumper 
750 Gal. Pumper 

1,250 Gal. Tanker 
750 Gal. Pumper 
550 Gal. Pumper 

750 Gal. Pumper 
450 Gal. Pumper 

1,800 Gal. Tanker 
500 Gal. Pumper 
750 Gal. Pumper 

500 Gal. Pumper 

300 Gal. Pumper 

1,600 Gal. Tanker 



20-22. 12 by direct 
phone hook-up. Cope- 
land has own. 

6; 5 residence phones; 
1 at foundry 



18 
18 



12- 
14 

20 



* Figures represent 1973 estimates by the North Central 
Florida Regional Planning Council 

** Hawthorne does not participate in county Fire Districting 
Plan. 



-100- 




4. Public Safety District, Alachua County 



fire protection services in the communities and the surrounding 
rural areas. Increasing the level of services rendered may 
be achieved by upgrading the water supply and distribution 
systems, including the location and spacing of fire hydrants 
and stand pipes, as well as continuing cooperation between 
the county and these communities to provide equipment in return 
for fire service within an extended area. 



Conclusions 



The Gainesville Urban Area is essentially without fire 
protection service, as much of the development, residential 
and commercial, is beyond the effective response range of the 
distant fire stations. With growth continually trending west, 
the situation promises to worsen unless preventative action is 
taken. 

The concept of volunteer fire departments for the smaller 
communities can be enhanced with continued training and fire 
fighting techniques, and equipment of sufficient quantities 
to meet the obligations of the county districting plan. Up- 
grading of support facilities, specifically alarm systems, 
water supply and distribution systems, and hydrant spacing 
should affect overall protection efforts. 



Recommendations 



1. Seven new fire stations be constructed in the Gainesville 
Urban Area, as indicated in Map 5. Two of these stations should 



-102- 



5, Service Area, Fire Stations, 
Gainesville Urban Area, 1990 




5. Service Area, Fire Stations, Gainesville Urban Area, 1990 



I 
I 
I 



house ladder companies as well as engine companies. These 
stations are noted on the map. 

2. Equipment and maintenance garages or sheds be con- 
structed in each of the smaller communities to house and main- 
tain their fire protection equipment and to protect said equip- 
ment from the inclemency of the weather. 



-104- 



EMERGENCY RESCUE AND MEDICAL SERVICE 



The provision of Emergency Ambulance Service by local 
government has prompted much debate among communities through- 
out the nation. Fire departments and personnel have univer- 
sally been trained and prepared to perform rescue work and 
emergency first aid in the field, and this remains an important 
aspect of their training. Alachua County does provide emer- 
gency ambulance service, and will soon be providing emergency 
rescue service on a county-wide basis. This section of the 
Community Facilities Plan will, therefore, examine several 
pertinent and important factors inherent to rescue and ambu- 
lance service . 

The primary objective of rescue service is to provide the 
quickest and best possible first aid to injured or sick persons 
This involves as a minimum, getting to the victim in the short- 
est possible time, administering effective first aid to save 
lives, prevent further bodily damage, and insuring that the 
injured are immediately and safely transported to a place where 
complete medical facilities and personnel can be provided. 
Furthermore, to insure that competent, well-trained personnel 
provide rescue service; to insure that the facilities, equip- 
ment and manpower are available in sufficient number and in 
proper location to provide effective response; and to provide 
rescue service at the lowest cost consistent with providing 
adequate service as stated in the previous objectives. 



-105- 



STANDARDS 



Numerous detailed standards for rescue services have been 
recoiTunended by such recognized organizations as the National 
Academy of Sciences. The following general standards are re- 
commended for guidance in our area: 

1. Emergency service should be located within five 
minutes of any location within the Gainesville 
Urban Area, and within fifteen minutes of any 
location in the remainder of the county area. 

2. All personnel must be especially trained, meeting 
the requirements as established by the State of 
Florida : 

a. An applicant for an emergency medical 
technician certificate must: 

1. Have completed an emergency medical 
technician training program of at 
least 80 hours or the equivalent 
approved by the Division. (Division 
of Health, Department of Health and 
Rehabilitative Services, State of 
Florida) 

b. An applicant for an emergency ambulance 
driver certificate must meet all standards 
required of an emergency medical technician 
and in addition: 



-106- 



1. Must have completed if applicable within 
the past two years a defensive driving 
course approved by the Division. 

2. Must hold if applicable a valid Florida 
chauffeur's license. 

c. Every ambulance not specifically excluded from 
the provisions of this act, when transporting a 
sick, injured, wounded, incapacitated, or help- 
less person, shall be occupied by at least two 
persons, each of whom holds a valid emergency 
medical technicians certificate, or a medical 
or registered nursing license, as provided for 
in Chapters 458, 459, or 464, Florida Statutes. 
The drive shall, in addition, have a valid 
emergency ambulance driver certificate. 

3. Ambulance design and equipment should meet the require- 
ments as established by the county. Specifically: 

a. Suitable vehicle . Each ambulance shall be 

suitable for transportation of patients from 
the standpoint of health, sanitation, and 
safety, and shall be maintained in suitable 
premises. Each ambulance shall conform in all 
aspects to the most recent design criteria as 
established by the United States Department of 
Transportation, except that the minimal overall 
internal dimensions of the patient area shall be 

Width: 71 inches: 

Length: 116 inches: 

Height: 6 inches from floor to ceiling. 



-107- 



b. Emergency medical equipment . Each ambulance 
shall contain emergency medical equipment 
suitable for dressing wounds, splinting 
fractures, controlling hemorrhage, pro- 
viding oxygen and providing suction. Mini- 
mum equipment carried on each ambulance shall 
conform to the most recent recommendation for 
essential equipment for ambulances as establish- 
ed by the American College of Surgeons and other 
equipment as the Board may require. 

c. Emergency vehicle equipment . Each ambulance 
shall be equipped with such lights, sirens, 
and special markings to designate it as an 
ambulance; such equipment and markings to 
conform to existing federal and state stan- 
dards . 

d. Communications . Each ambulance shall contain 
two-way radio communication with the location 
from which it operates and the County Medical 
Emergency Communications Center. 



ANALYSIS 



Alachua County, through the County Department of Public 
Safety, owns six ambulances, which are leased to the Alachua 
Ambulance Service. Five of these ambulances are located in 
Gainesville on N.W. 13th Street, with one ambulance located 
in High Springs. Calls for emergencies originating outside 
of the Gainesville Urban Area come into the sheriff's communi- 
cation center in the basement of the County Courthouse. 



-108- 



Emergency calls within the Gainesville Urban Area terminate at 
the emergency communications headquarters at Fire Station #1 
on Main Street. In both cases, emergency medical calls are 
cross-patched to the ambulance service. All of the ambulances 
and equipment purchased by the County meet the established 
standards, as do all personnel. 

Emergency rescue service is planned on a county-wide 
basis to become operational as soon as personnel and volunteer 
fire departments are trained. A rescue vehicle will be placed 
within each volunteer fire department as soon as the personnel 
complete the necessary training. The rescue vehicle will 
serve as a first aid station also. However, the vehicle and 
personnel will not be qualified to transport victims to a 
hospital. Rather, they will only be qualified to give on- 
sight medical attention, stabilize, and sustain the victim 
until an ambulance can arrive. 

It should be noted that the County has ordered closed 
circuit TV for emergency vehicles that will enable doctors at 
hospitals to communicate visually with the accident victim, 
therefore allowing the doctor to issue instructions regarding 
the treatment of the patient (s) at the scene or en route to 
the hospital. This is a significant improvement to the rescue 
system and should enhance rescue service. 



CONCLUSIONS 



Emergency medical and emergency rescue services are currently 
located in and operating out of the city of Gainesville, resulting 



-109- 



in a situation often requiring the ambulances to travel con- 
siderable distances to reach the scene of an accident. How- 
ever, this situation should be remedied as the volunteer fire 
department personnel receive their emergency rescue training 
and emergency rescue units are stationed at each of the volun- 
teer fire departments. These units will then provide emergency 
services to each of the respective eleven districts, as deline- 
ated in the Public Safety Districting Plan indicated in Map 4. 



RECOMMENDATIONS 



1. That volunteer fire department personnel from all 
the smaller communities receive emergency rescue 
training. 

2. Subsequent to this training, an emergency rescue 
vehicle should be stationed at each volunteer fire 
department to provide emergency rescue service to 
the respective public safety districts. 



•110- 



POLICE 



Police protection in Alachua County is provided by 
several city police departments and the Alachua County 
Sheriff's Office. A brief description of the facilities 
is in order. 



SHERIFF'S OFFICE 



The Alachua County Sheriff's Office provides protection 
for all of Alachua County, and provides local police service 
to several of the smaller communities which are without their 
own municipal police force. The county is divided into police 
service districts, as indicated in Map 6. Archer, High Springs, 
and Waldo each have their own municipal police forces. And the 
sheriff's office provides service for the area surrounding these 
cities. County response does however include response inside 
of these cities. 

The Sheriff's Department has contracted with four of the 
smaller communities to have an officer in the city 24 hours a 
day. The philosophy behind the police district plan is that 
better protection can be provided these cities and more effi- 
cient operations will result through the distribution of man- 
power and equipment. To provide proper police coverage to the 
district, the sheriff must organize additional vehicles and 
employ three additional deputies, making a total of five 
deputies needed for the service district. The county's 



-111- 



I 

1 



] 



6. Police Service District, 
Alachua County 



-..vy 




6. Police Service District, Alachua County 



responsibilities include the provision of manpower, equipment, 
training and money, while the smaller communities which par- 
ticipate in the program contribute a flat sum of money to the 
program. Originally, this figure was set at $1,250 per month, 
however, this figure is subject to review and re-negotiation. 
Funds for this county program come from revenue sharing funds 
and regular sheriff's budget. 

Waldo - Waldo has its own city police force, with two 
cars, each equipped with citizen band radios. 

Archer - Archer has a two-man department with two 
vehicles. Calls come into City Hall and 
also to the respective residences. 

High Springs - High Springs has two vehicles in its 

full time city police department. 
Dispatches originate at City Hall. 

Gainesville - The city of Gainesville operates its own 
municipal police department, with head- 
quarters on N.W. 6th Street. This depart- 
ment provides full time coverage to the 
city of Gainesville, and responds to 911 
calls originating in the Gainesville Urban 
Area . 



CONCLUSIONS 



The Sheriff's police service districts plan should provide 
many of the small communities which are without a local police 



-113- 



force with adequate police protection. Gainesville, Archer, 
High Springs, and Waldo appear to have adequate police pro- 
tection, and should continue to enjoy such protection pro- 
vided the respective departments expand as population and 
physical growth of their necessitates. 

Currently, emergency calls originating outside the 
Gainesville Urban Area 3-7 exchange terminate at the sheriff's 
communication headquarters in the basement of the County 
Courthouse, while emergency calls originating inside of the 
Gainesville Urban Area terminate the fire department's communi- 
cation headquarters at Fire Station #1. Any delay in dispatch- 
ing the appropriate personnel from the appropriate agency may 
be reduced by consolidating ^he two communication's headquarters 
into one central unit with the\capability to cross-patch calls 
immediately to the appropriate agency or dispatch directly. 

RECOMMENDAT IONS 



1. The Sheriff's police service district concept be 
continued and supported as a means of providing 
adequate police protection to the smaller communi- 
ties . 

2. There be one emergency communication headquarters 
unit to serve all public safety units in Alachua 
County. 



-114' 



BIKE WAYS 



PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS 



The bicycle has, for many years, served both as a re- 
creational vehicle and as a mode of transportation for commuters. 
The popularity of the bicycle has certainly increased in recent 
years in Alachua County, particularly within the Gainesville 
Urban Area, in large part due to the popularity of the bicycle 
with students as an inexpensive, yet efficient, mode of trans- 
portation. Bicycling was enhanced as physical exercise became 
increasingly accepted as healthy and beneficial, and again as 
the energy crunch resulted in gasoline shortages. It is now 
commonplace to see students of all ages riding to classes, as 
well as businessmen and other professionals riding to and from 
work, With the increase in the use of bicycles as a commuting 
vehicle, and the concomitant increase in recreational usage, 
more and more bicycles are traveling the roads of the county 
and city, creating in some cases potential hazards to the safety 
of the cyclist, the automobile driver, and the pedestrian. Pre- 
cisely because of this safety factor bikeway plans and systems 
are needed throughout the county to insure that cyclists may 
commute without increasing the potential for harm, either to 
themselves or to others, and to insure that automobile traffic 
may continue to flow unimpeded by cyclists. 

The rising number of traffic accidents (Table 14) involv- 
ing automobiles and bicycles has provided an impetus to construct 
bikeways and marked bikelanes as a means of separating these two 
modes of transportation. Two fatalities this year on West 34th 



\ 



-115- 



street have made the need for bikepaths more pronounced, and 
efforts have increased. 



TABLE 14 



AUTO-BIKE ACCIDENTS 

GAINESVILLE 
1973-1974 



Accidents Injuries Fatalities 
1973 51 50 

1974* 44 42 2 

* Through June 



The continued increase in the popularity of bicycling 
has brought an estimated 40 to 50,000 bicycles into Alachua County, 
with by far the highest proportion of these being concentrated in 
Gainesville and its urban area. There is no way to firmly estab- 
lish the number of bicycles in the county, since there is no 
licensing process, but the figure of 40 to 50,000 seems reasonable, 
when the University of Florida campus population is considered. 
With a 1974 projected enrollment approaching 27,500, and assuming 
that for a very large proportion of students bicycles are the 
primary, and certainly a secondary, mode of transportation, there 
may well be 10,000 or more bicycles on the University of Florida 
campus alone. 

Putting conjecture aside, consider that bicycles are used 
by a variety of people types for a variety of reasons. People 
of all ages and states of physical fitness ride bicycles, from 



-116- 



the student riding between home and school, to couples who 
ride purely for enjoyment, to the youngster who rides hard at 
play. As the bicycle continues to grow in popularity as an 
instrument of pleasure as well as a reliable mode of trans- 
portation, the bicycle population will continue to expand. 
As the population of the area increases, so too will the 
number of automobiles and auto trips increase. Traffic counts 
will increase concurrently. As the University of Florida cam- 
pus grows, and as more and more people buy bicycles for them- 
selves and their children, bicycle counts will increase also, 
particularly around the schools and the paths thereto. 

It is during this population growth, with the concomitant 
growth in the number of automobiles and bicycles traveling the 
roads, that the propensity for auto-bike accidents increases. 
The time for planning bikeways and bikelanes, therefore, is now. 

It should be understood that bikeways will not, and cannot 
be expected to, serve to decrease auto-bike accidents caused by 
a bicyclist darting out into the path of a car, nor reduce the 
number of accidents resulting from negligence on the part of the 
cyclist or the auto driver. Bikeways can, however, serve to de- 
ter accidents by either physically separating the bicycle and 
the car or by marking off specific travel lanes for the bicycle 
and the car. In the former case, bikeways may be on sidewalks, 
and in the latter case, the line marking the individual travel 
zones are to be respected just as the center line marking lanes 
of auto traffic is respected. Several examples of the various 
types of bikeways are provided in illustrations one through four 

Whether, indeed, an exclusive or preferential right-of-way 
for bicyclists actually enhances bicycle safety and reduces the 
number of bicycle accidents has been the subject of some debate. 



■117- 



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Obviously, as in any public safety campaign, public awareness 
and a willingness to accept and respect the rights-of-way of 
neighboring traffic, regardless of its nature, is of paramount 
importance to the success of the program. Bicyclists must re- 
frain from riding in front of and between cars, as well as obey 
traffic signs and signals. Automibile drivers must, by the same 
token, drive within their designated lanes, and be cognizant of 
the bicyclist's presence. 

There is evidence that bikeways have a significant, posi- 
tive role in enhancing and increasing bicycle safety. The city 
of Davis, California, installed bikelanes after bicyclists 
persistently mixed with automobile traffic. During the first 
year of operation, bicyclists stayed within the bikelanes, 
separating themselves from the auto traffic, and no auto-bike 
accidents occurred. 

Palo Alto, California, designated a bicycle route (with 
signs only) in 1967. After the one year trial period showed 
no significant increase in bicycle safety, marked bicycle lanes 
were installed, and the situation changed. Bicyclists rode 
within the lanes, even though they were not legally compelled 
to do so, thus: 



The experiment proved conclusively that the concept 
of bicycle lanes/paths was not only workable but 
certainly offered a more promising solution to the 
bicycle safety problem. The city staff thus con- 
cluded that because the concept of bicycle lanes/paths 
seemed to offer more safety advantages to both bi- 
cyclists and motorists alike, that such a concept 
and solution should be employed on a city-wide basis. 
(Tempe Bikeway Study, Background; Tempe Planning De- 
partment, 1972) . 



■122- 



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1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 
DENSITY OF MOTOR VFHICLES 



ACCIDENT COMPARISONS^ 



* Figure adapted from page 7, Fietspaden en-oversteekplaatsen , 
(Bicycle Path and Cycle-Crossings) , by the Koninklijke 
Nederlandsche Toeristenbond (43) . 

Source: Tempe Bikeway Study, Background: Tanpe Planning De- 
partment, 1972. 



-123- 



Similar studies in Europe, notably in Holland, have 
found that bikeways substantially reduce the number of accidents. 
A 1952 study compared the number of accidents on sample two- 
lane roads with and without bikeways. Accident rates were com- 
pared between 680 kilometers of roads with bicycle traffic and 
no bikeways, and 1,230 kilometers of road where bikelanes were 
provided. The roads with bikelanes showed notably less accidents 
as indicated in Illustration 5. 

In a similar study comparing accidents on four roads over 
an eight year (1955-1963 study period) , accident rates were 
less on roads where bikepaths were provided, and significantly 
less when comparing accident rates before and after installation 
of the paths. A 1962 French study showed a 45% reduction in 
accident rates involving two-wheeled vehicles (bicycles and mo- 
peds) and automobiles when bikeways were provided. 

These and similar studies suggest that bikeways (or 
bikelanes or bikepaths) do have a positive effect on bicycle 
safety. 



Existing Conditions 



Locally, the City of Gainesville has planned a substantial 
bikeway system within the city limits, totaling 102 miles as 
indicated in Map 7 . Observations of the map points out that 
bikeways follow major thoroughfares within the city, as well 
as connector streets through residential areas. Bikeways also 
lead to schools. Streets notably lacking bikeways include the 
length of 34th Street on the west side of town, where two 



■124- 



1 



J 




fatalities have occurred this year. The city did create, on 
June 12, 197 2, a Bikeways Advisory Board responsible to the 
City Manager, charged with the responsibility of studying 
and making recommendations to the city manager on all matters 
concerning the implementation and maintenance of a compre- 
hensive bikeway system in the city. 

Within the unincorporated, urbanized area of Gainesville, 
few bikeways exist, although the need for them is high. Bike- 
ways of some sort should be provided along major streets and 
connectors leading to the schools, at the very least. These 
bikeways leading to schools should be sidewalks serving to 
physically separate bicyclists from motorized traffic. At 
the very least, prominantly marked bikelanes should be in- 
stalled along the side of or within the road. 

The smaller communities have no lanes or paths marked 
as bikeways, although sidewalks can and do serve that function. 
Whereas traffic generation attributable to local residents may 
be lighter in comparison with the Gainesville Urban Area traffic 
congestion, several of the smaller communities do have heavy 
through traffic, such as High Springs and Alachua on U.S. 441, 
Waldo and Hawthorne on U.S. 301, and Newberry on State Road 26. 
Some industrial traffic exists in Alachua and High Springs. 
Bikeways or prominantly marked lanes should be considered in 
these cities, specifically on streets feeding into heavily 
traveled routes to the area schools. 



Funding 



Before a bikeway can be constructed, funding must be 
available. The State now has a law (Chapter 73-339, Laws 



-126- 



of Florida) authorizing the establishment of a system of by- 
cycle trails and footpaths in Florida. This law designates 
the Department of Natural Resources, Division of Recreation 
and Parks to develop a statewide system and the Department 
of Transportation to construct it. 

The Federal Highway Act of 1973 permits states to use up 
to $2,000,000 of their federal highway funds for the design and 
construction of bicycle trails and footpaths on federal and 
state road rights-of-way. This money must be matched on a 
70/30 basis (70-Federal, 30-State) and is not additional money 
for a state, but merely permits money the state received for 
road construction to be used for bikeway or footpath construction 
At the present time, the 3 0% state share is coming out of regular 
state highway funds. 

The other source of funding is local. The City of 
Gainesville Bikeway System is funded by the City under traffic 
engineering, and so far the county has plans to use money out 
of the secondary road funds to develop bike routes in conjunc- 
tion with sidewalks. 

The cost for bike routes will vary with the type of route 
and who does the actual construction. It is usually found that 
contracted work is higher priced than work done by state or 
county road departments. The prices quoted on the following 
page are for the construction of routes without signing and 
represent present estimates subject to change. With drainage 
or other problems, prices will increase. 



-127- 



TABLE 15 



BIKEWAY COSTS 








Estimated Cost 


Estimated Cos 


Route Type 




Per Mile 


Per Running Fo 


Bike Lane 


(4" 


$ 792.00 


$0.15 


white line 


with 






reflectors 


) 






5 ft. Wide 


Concrete 


29,040.00 


5.50 


Sidewalk** 


(curb and 






gutter) 








6 ft. Wide 


Asphalt* 


11,088.00 


2.10 


8 ft. Wide 


Asphalt* 


14,784.00 


2.80 


8 ft. Wide 


Path*** 


10,000.00 


1.89 



* 

** 

*** 



City Estimate 
County Estimate 
State Estimate 



The State of Florida recently listed a number of in- 
dependent bikeway projects for fiscal year 1975 which are 
eligible to be funded by the $2,000,000 made available through 
the Federal Highway Act of 1973. Seven candidate projects were 
listed in Alachua County, all within the Gainesville Urban Area, 
totaling 16.7 miles at an estimated cost of $417,500. This 
breaks down to an estimated cost of $25,000 per mile. 



-128- 



Recommendations 



1. Alachua County consider the construction of bike- 
ways to serve the Gainesville Urban Area as indi- 
cated in Map 8 . 

2. A Bikeway Advisory Board be created by the Alachua 
County Board of County Commissioners to aid in 
planning a bikeway system in Alachua County, spe- 
cifically within the Gainesville Urban Area. Ex- 
pansion of the Gainesville Bikeway Advisory Board 
to include representatives of the urban areas 
appointed by the County Commission, as well as ex- 
pansion of the scope and purpose of the Board could 
serve to satisfy the intent of this recommendation. 

3. The smaller cities create and convene similar local 
bikeway advisory boards to consider their own local 
needs for bikeways. 

4. Primary consideration be given to providing a bike- 
way along 34th Street, physically separating motori- 
zed traffic from bicycle traffic. (This action has 
recently taken place, as the State has entered into 
separate contracts with the City and County for their 
respective portions of 34th Street) . 

5. Connector streets and all major streets leading to 
all schools should have bikeways, preferably separa- 
ting bicycle traffic from motorized traffic. Where 
this is not possible, prominantly marked bicycle 
lanes with raised reflectors should be installed. 



-129- 



6. A public education campaign should be employed to 
make all drivers of all vehicles aware of the 
existence and role of bikeways and bikelanes. 

7. Stringent enforcement by police officers of traffic 
violations by bicyclists. 



-130- 



SCHOOL FACILITIES 



METHODOLOGY 



Projecting the need for new or expanded school facilities 
necessitates determining the number of school children to be 
housed within the school system. A trend analysis of school 
enrollment figures over the past five years will be used to 
determine a mean ratio of student enrollment to total county 
population. This mean ratio will then be used as a constant 
to determine projected student enrollment for 1980, 1985 and 
1990, based upon population projections from the Housing, 1973 
study (NCFRPC, 1973). Similarly, the distribution of students 
into broad grade categories will be determined by taking a 
mean of the percent distribution figures for grade blocks 1-5, 
6-8, and 9-12 for the past four years. These respective means 
will then be used as constants for determining enrollment by 
grade level for 1980, 1985, and 1990. 

Finally, these projected figures will be compared with 
suggested optimum sizes (pupil enrollment) for elementary, 
middle and senior high schools, to determine the need for 
new structures, or their equivalents by an enlargement of 
current facilities. 



--132- 



ANALYSIS 



Trends 









TABLE 


16 








SPOP 


S/T 


<: < 


3P0P 




Year 


TFOP 


1-5 


6-8 


9-12 


69-70 


104,764 


20,943 


20.0 








70-71 


109,505 


19,882 


18.2 








71-72 


115,824 


20,504 


17.7 


45.0 


25.9 


29.2 


72-73 


120,128 


20,574 


17.1 


43.4 


27.2 


29.4 


73-74 


124,500 


20,491 


16.5 


42.5 


27 .9 


29.5 


74-75* 


127,872 


20,188 


15.8 


40.8 (8235) 


27.0 (5455) 


32.2 (6498 


M 71-72 
(Cons 


/74-75 
tants) 




16.8 


42.9 


27.0 


30.1 



Table 1 indicates the public school membership during the 
past five years, with an estimate of the current year's enroll- 
ment. Two important facts must be considered here. First, mem- 
bership figures represent enrollment at the end of the school 
year, and are always lower than enrollment figures for the be- 
ginning of the school year, due primarily to drop outs and 
transfers. Actually, total enrollment in the public school 
system is increasing, but greater numbers of students are 
participating in a variety of vocational programs, such as 
work study and career placement, or are opting for concentrated 
night classes while working during the day. Additionally, the 
figures are only pertinent to grades one through twelve, and do 
not include kindergarten enrollment (which is currently optional, 

* School Board Estimates; + 500 



-133- 



not being a state requirement as yet) , or year round head start 
program. These programs are difficult to quantify and it is, 
therefore, difficult to assess the impact of these programs on 
the need for new school facilities. However, the primary con- 
cern of this study is determining the need for new school struc- 
tures or their equivalents, and therefore is concerned with the 
number of school children being housed on the school's system. 
The figures in the table represent this. 

B. Projections 



TABLE 17 



SPOP 



Year 


TPOP 


SPOP 


S/T 


1-5 


6-8 


9-12 


79-80 


145,111 


24,335 


16,8 


10,449 


6,568 


7,317 


84-85 


165,432 


27,743 


16,8 


11,913 


7,488 


8,342 


89-90 


185,400 


31,092 


16,8 


13,351 


8,392 


9,349 



Table II utilizes the constants derived from Table I to 

project school membership for school years 1979-80, 1984-85, 

and 1989-90 as well as the distribution of students by grade 
level . 



C . Change 



TABLE 18 



Time Span 


Total Change 


1-5 


6-8 


9-12 


75-80 


4,146 


2,214 


1,113 


819 


80-85 


3,409 


1,464 


920 


1,025 


85-90 


3,349 


1,438 


904 


1,007 


75-90 


10,904 


5,116 


2,937 


2,851 



-134- 



Table 18 illustrates tne change in tiie number of students 
being housed within the school system between study years, and 
between the current school year and the final study year. These 
figures will be used to assess the need for new schools or their 
equivalents . 



D . Optimum Size 



r 

I Elementary 
/ Middle 
/ Senior High 



TABLE 19 



7 



660 pupils 
1,200 pupils 
1,800 pupil 



!3 



Table 19 gives the optimum size for elementary, middle 
and senior high schools, as noted in the 1971 survey of schools 
(Florida Department of Education, November, 1971). These figures, 
when compared with the projected student population, translate 
into the following number of new schools or their equivalents: 

TABLE 2d 



1980 



1985 



1990 



TOTAL 



Elementary 


3 + 


2+ 


2 + 


8 + 


Middle 


1 


+ 


1 


2+ 


Senior 


+ 


1 


+ 


1+ 



It is important to recognize that Table 20 illustrates the 
need for new schools or their equivalents, meaning that new 
school structures are not necessarily called for, since current 
facilities may be enlarged and resources and students redistri- 
buted to meet the needs of the system. Thus, the "+" sign present 



-135- 



in every category signifies that expansion of some facilities 
will be necessary to accommodate the expected student population 
in addition to the new facilities indicated. 



E. Location 

The location of the new schools is centered within the 
Gainesville Urban Area, coinciding with the projection that 95% 
of the total population increase within Alachua County between 
now and 1990 will be centered in the Gainesville Urban Area. 
This is not to say that schools or school needs within the 
outlying areas of the county will be ignored; rather, it is 
felt that the existing facilities within Alachua County serving 
the smaller communities have sufficient capability for enlarge- 
ment to meet the demands which will be placed on the system due 
to population increase. 

Specifically, schools within the Gainesville Urban Area 
will be concentrated on the west side of town, the area experiencing 
the greatest growth, and the area in which future growth and de- 
velopment is expected to take place. The map accompanying this 
report suggests the general location of new schools which will be 
needed to accommodate the increased student population. It should 
be emphasized that these locations are not specific sites, but are 
suggestions of locations as determined by areas of need. 



F. Site Location Criteria 

When assessing a potential site for the location of a school 
building, several variables should be considered which may have an 
effect on the ability of the school to perform its assigned function, 



-136- 



Listed below are several suggestions of items to be considered. 
This list is a prelude to the development of specific site lo- 
cation criteria. 



1. Land Use Plans - Consultation of the Comprehensive Land 
Use Plan should be a prerequisite to school site selection 
Schools should be located away from undesirable environ- 
ment, avoiding proximity to noise, hazardous and congested 
areas. When a school site is selected, the area should 

be protected from commercial encroachment, maintaining 
the area as residential. Zoning should also be used to 
control the density of development so that overcrowding 
of a particular school doesn't occur. 

2. Transportation Planning - Streets carrying heavy or fast 
moving traffic affect the location of new schools as well 
as the expansion of existing ones. Any long range build- 
ing program must take into consideration proposed routes 
of strefets and highways. Elementary schools should be 
located on residential collector streets that provide 
access throughout the residential area. Secondary schools 
should be located on arterial streets that serve much 
larger areas. 

3. Fire Protection - Consideration must be given to school 
location in relation to fire stations, distance from 
station to school and the time required for equipment 
to get there. Consideration should be given to the 
following: 1) installing sprinkler systems, 2) con- 
sulting the fire department on school buildings and 
site accessibility to fire equipment, 3) placement of 
stand pipes and their size and flow requirements, and 

4) placement of emergency alarm boxes on school grounds. 

4. Parks and Playgrounds - The planning of joint school- 
park development would provide an adequate playground, 
community gathering place, and serve as a buffer zone 
between the school and the surrounding homes. Combining 
school with parks would eliminate the duplication of 
facilities, and assure the public that they were ob- 
taining the most for their tax dollar. 

5. Airports - Proximity to airports should be avoided when 
selecting school sites. Special attention must be paid 
to the location of facilities so that they are not in 
the immediate approach-departure paths of planes. The 



-137- 



potential hazards are: 1) the noise level around the 
airport, and 2) the possibility of a crash which is 
most critical during take-off and landing. 

Utilities - These are of prime importance in selecting 
the school site. A check on these facilities should be 
made, prior to purchase, to determine the availability 
of sewage and storm drainage facilities, as well as water, 
gas and electrical connections. A site is considered in- 
adequate if it is served by open drainage ditches and 
septic tanks. The site's accessibility to existing 
utilities is an important factor. The size and type of 
service needed, size of water main, electrical connections 
and gas lines should be calculated in advance. 

Soils - Selecting the school site should involve a de- 
tailed study of the type of soils and their drainage 
characteristics. The sites should be selected on the 
basis of the following information: 1) is the site 
well drained, 2) is it subject to periodic flooding, 
and 3) is the soil suitable for buildings and playgrounds. 

Footings and foundations for buildings must rest on soils 
that are capable of supporting such facilities; the ability 
of the soil to support a dead weight without settling 
is most important in designing and constructing founda- 
tions . 

Determination of the topography of the proposed site 
should be made, as well as its propensity to flood or 
its presence within a flood plain area. Proposed sites 
should receive extensive review for environmental 
suitability, prior to purchase. 

Appearance - A prime consideration in the selection of 
a site is the area's natural beauty. The site's aes- 
thetic qualities can be preserved and enhanced by care- 
ful planning. The buildings should be planned to blend 
with the natural amenities of the site. Creative site 
planning avoids large expenditures for leveling, grading, 
filling, and clearing. The site will obviously contri- 
bute to increasing the property value of the residential 
community it serves. Thus the site becomes a vital part 
of the teaching-learning process, providing a proper 
atmosphere for study and plan. 



-138- 



<. 



9. Proposed School Locations, 
Gainesville Urban Area 




9. Proposed School Locations, Gainesville Urban Area 



OPEN. SPACE AND RECREATION 



The demand for outdoor recreation and open space has been 
a major concern in the past decade. It promises to have 
a greater influence on future private and governmental 
activities and policies. Increasing population, the four- 
day work week, longer holiday periods, and higher income 
levels will continue the unparalleled demand for outdoor 
facilities and organized open spaces. 

Our land and water resources are limited in spite of the 
fact tnat open land exists within and beyond populated 
areas. Accessible open land is rapidly disappearing and 
very difficult to acquire, especially where the need is 
greatest - where the people live and work. 

The challenge to public officials at all levels of govern- 
ment is dramatic. They must provide more recreation faci- 
lities with less open land, at the same time, increasing 
the protection of the remaining natural and recreational 
environments . 

The North Central Florida Regional Planning Council completed 
a report for Alachua County on Open Space and Recreation pub- 
lished in July, 1973. The report is intended to assist local 
governments in meeting this challenge by developing a systematic 



-140- 



approach to the provisions of public recreational open 
space. The following is a summary of that report in- 
cluding an inventory of existing facilities, a review 
of the 1990 Plan and 198 Program, and a current progress 
report on the status of the 1990 Plan and 1980 Program in 
regard to acceptance, funding, and implementation. 

REVIEW OF EXISTING FACILITIES 

State Parks in Alachua County 

Paynes Prairie - located to the south of Gainesville 
and the north of Micanopy, Paynes Prairie covers 17,000 
acres. The property is now under control of the 
Division of Recreation and Parks of the Department 
of Natural Resources. 

Following completion of a three-year study in June, 
1974, the area will be developed into a multi-purpose 
recreational facility. It will attempt to combine 
preservation of a unique wildlife habitat with a wide 
variety of compatible public recreational activities. 

Devils Millhopper - is considered to be one of the 
longest and oldest sinks in the State. This 39-acre 
site is located in northwest Gainesville and has re- 
cently changed guardianship from the University of 
Florida to the State Department of Natural Resources. 
There are tentative plans to acquire more property 
west of the sink and when completed, the park will 
allow public use and study of this unique natural 
phenomenon . 



-141- 



O'Leno State Park - is located in tne nortnwest corner 
of Alachua County, north of High Springs. This is a 
very well developed state park on 169 acres. The park 
is located on the Santa Fe River at the point where 
it goes underground for approximately five miles. 

Camp Wauberg - sits on a 14 acre tract of land on the 
northern edge of Lake Wauberg near Micanopy. It is 
bordered on the north and east by state property 
controlled by the Department of Natural Resources and 
on the west by private land owners. The camp property 
is under ownership of the State Board of Regents and 
is controlled by the University of Florida. The camp 
was closed to use in 197 and has never been re-opened. 
Current plans are to open this area in July, 1974. 

COUNTY-OWNED RECREATIONAL AREAS 

For the purpose of brevity, information on all county-owned 
recreation areas is summarized in Table 21. For the most 
part, these park sites have not been developed with the 
exception of construction of boat ramps. Therefore, their 
classification is based on their potential according to 
size rather than current purpose. The following definitions 
will aid in distinguishing between the various types of 
parks referred to in Table 21. 

Regional Parks - are recreation areas which are capable 
of serving all the people of the region. These parks 
provide major recreation facilities not duplicated in 
district parks such as sports centers, golf courses, 
bridle paths, and lakes or streams for fishing and 
boating. They also have other facilities found in 



-142- 



neighborhood parks such as athletic fields, game 
courts, family picnic facilities, playground 
equipment for young children, nature trails, and 
a recreation building for organized social and 
recreational activities. Regional parks may also 
serve as large open spaces which provide for a 
relief in urban development. The recognized stan- 
dard for regional parks is four acres per one 
thousand population with a minimum size of one 
hundred acres. 

It is important to note that the county owns no 
parks which, by size, can be classified as regional 
This is significant because the county is the most 
likely provider of regional park facilities. 

District Parks - are areas designed to serve groups 
of neighborhoods. They are large enough to accommo- 
date a variety of recreation facilities for all age 
groups. Available facilities may include athletic 
fields, courts for various sports, a swimming pool, 
areas of natural beauty, and family picnic areas. 

Neighborhood Parks - serve the recreation needs of 
persons of all ages in the neighborhoods. They are 
intended to enhance the neighborhood setting and 
appearance and may include the playgrounds of ele- 
mentary schools provided the areas are contiguous. 
Usually, the neighborhood parks are partly wooded 
and partly open and designed to serve both the 
active and passive recreation needs of all family 
members . 



-143- 



TABLE 21 



COUNTY-OWNED RECREATION AREAS IN ALACHUA COUNTY 



District Parks ; 
Name 

Santa Fe Lake Park 

Lake Alto Park 

Newnans Lake East Park 

McCall Park 

Marjorie K. Rawlings Park 



Size (acres) 

25 
20 
21 
80 
25 



Facilities 

None 

Double boat ramp/picnic area 

Boat ramp/restrooms 

Boat ramp only 

Historic site/boat ramp 



Neighborhood Parks 



Watermelon Pond Park 

Monteocha-Gordon 
Community Center 

Newnans Lake Park 



Holden Park 
Waldo Park 



10 
5 

7.5 

13 
3 



Boat ramp only 
Softball field 



Boat ramp, picnic and rest- 
room facilities 

Boat ramp and picnic tables 

Boat ramp and dock, and 
picnic tables 



Special Use Facilities : 

River Styx Boat Ramp 

Lake Jeffords Boat Launch 

Lochloosa Station Boat 
Ramp 

Melrose Bay Boat Ramp 



1 

1 

.4 



Boat ramp only 
Boat ramp only 
Boat ramp only 

Boat ramp only 



-144- 



Special Use Facilities - are recreation areas de- 
signed to serve one primary function, such as a 
football stadium or swimming pool. These facili- 
ties are normally located on sites which provide 
only enough space for the single use. 

GAINESVILLE URBAN AREA 

For the purpose of brevity, information on all recrea- 
tional areas within the Gainesville Urban Area are 
summarized in Table 22 below: 



Type 

Regional Park 

District Parks 

Neighborhood Parks 

Tot-Lots 

School Playgrounds 



TABLE 22 
Number of Parks 



Size (acres) 



1 


278 


4 


97 


10 


46 


8 


4.2 


19 


76 



ALACHUA COUNTY MUNICIPALITIES - EXCLUSIVE OF GAINESVILLE 
URBAN AREA 

Information on all recreation areas owned by and witnin 
the small municipalities of Alachua County is summarized 
in Table 23 on the following page: 



-145- 



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-146- 



Special Use Facilities - Information on all special 
use facilities in Alachua County v/rrich are privately 
owned is summarizea in Table 24. Facilities are 
grouped into broad categories for tne purpose of 
brevity . 






u 





TABLE 


24 


Category 




Number of 
Facilities 


Fish Camp 






5 


Golf Course 






5 


Auto Speedway 






2 


Swimming Pools 






6 


Nature Areas & 


Camps 




4 


Sports Fields & 


Clubs 




3 


Private Schools 






2 



Total Acreage 



RECOMMENDATIONS 




The recommendations presented in this report are in two 
basic sections -- a long range (1990) plan and a mid- 
range (1980) program. 

If the future recreational needs of the residents of 
this area are to be met, the identification and attainment 
of park sites and major open space systems should begin 
immediately and should be accomplished within a systematic 
and comprehensive framework. 

The recommendations presented in the 1990 plan and the 1980 
program, however, are limited to sites associated with 
district parks or larger. The reason for this is that the 



-147- 



decisions regarding sites of neighborhood parks, play- 
grounds, tot-lots, and most special use facilities are 
very short range and very local in nature. They may 
be provided by a developer, or by a new private or 
public school. Tneir exact location depends heavily 
on the exact location of the neighborhoods which they 
serve; such a future location is difficult to forecast. 

Based on the current and projected populations of the 
Gainesville Urban Area and Alachua County, and utilizing 
current recreation standards, expected recreation needs 
are projected in Table 25. 

TABLE 2 5 
1980 Program and 1990 Plan 

Population of Alachua County: 



Present - 114,000 

Regional Parks : 

Present 
Have 27 8A Need 4 5 6A 

# New Acres 178A 

Parks 1 3 

# New Parks 2 



1980 - 135,000 

std. 4A/1,000 pop. 

1980 

54 OA 

84A 

4 

1 



1990 - 170,000 

lOOA 

1990 
680A 
140A 

5 

1 



Population of Gainesville Urban Area : 

Present - 90,000 1980 - 120,000 



1990 - 152,000 



■148- 



TABLE 25 



CONTINUED 



District Parks: 



Present 




1980 


Have 97A 


Need 18 OA 


240A 


# New Acres 


8 3A 


6 0A 


Parks 4 


7 


9 


# New Parks 


3 


2 



std. 2A/1,000 pop. 



2 5A 



1990 

304A 
64A 
12 
3 



Neighborhood Parks: 



Present 




1980 


Have 4 6A 


Need 9 0A 


120A 


# New Acres 


44A 


3 0A 


Parks 10 


18 


24 


# New Parks 


8 


6 



std. lA/1,000 pop. 



5A 



1990 

152A 
32A 
30 
6 



-149- 



Sources of Funding 

Some of the ways of funding open space, including 
acquisition of fee title, acquisition of scenic easement 
and leasing of land use rights, require funding as the 
means of their implementation. The major sources of 
funds are public and may be available from Federal, state, 
and local governments. To assist in the implementation of 
our recommendations, a summary of funding possibilities 
is presented. 

Federal Funding 

There are numerous Federal programs which provide 
various types of assistance to local governments 
in the general area of open space preservation. 
The major Federal programs which might be appli- 
cable to our recommendations are as follows: 1) 
Land and Water Conservation Fund, (U.S. Department 
of the Interior, Bureau of Outdoor Recreation ) . 
Authorized by the Land and Water Conservation Fund 
Act of 1964, the Land and Water Conservation Fund, 
is in scope, the most comprehensive Federal grant 
program for land acquisition. The program provides 
50% matching assistance for states and their poli- 
tical subdivisions for the acquisition and/or de- 
velopment of outdoor recreation areas and facilities; 
2) Legacy of Parks (U.S. Department of Housing and 
Urban Development) . Legacy of Parks is the program 
which replaces HUD's Open Space Program. Legacy of 
Parks was designed to preserve open space in high- 
density urban areas. Local governments will be the 
primary recipients of the Federal Government's 5 0% 



-150- 



matching assistance for new parks and open spaces. 
The HUD Area Office has established an informal 
"in house" limit of $100,000 per project appli- 
cation. This limit has been set because of 
limited funds and high demand, but can be exceeded 
if conditions warrant. 

State Funding 

Historically, there has been little financial assist- 
ance for open space and recreation facilities offered 
to local governments by the state* The state has 
preferred to apply its funds primarily to direct 
acquisition of recreation areas of state-wide sig- 
nificance. There have been some policies and programs 
developed recently, however, which make state assist- 
ance more likely: 1) Land and Water Conservation Fund 
By a policy adopted in 1966, and reaffirmed in 1971, 
the state makes available to local governments one- 
half of the annual apportionments of the Federal Land 
and Water Conservation Fund discussed previously under 
Federal funding; 2) Florida Recreation Development 
Assistance Program , Established in 1963, and ad- 
ministered by the Division of Recreation and Parks 
of the State Department of Natural Resources, this 
program is designed to provide for either acquisition 
or development of recreation lands. 

Formerly, all land purchased under this program had to 
be deeded to the state and then leased back to local 
governments. Now, however, local governments may re- 
tain ownership and still be eligible for state funding; 



-151- 



Worthy projects receive the first $50,000 free 
with the option of matching state money, dollar 
for dollar with local money, for an additional 
$50,000 making a total state contribution of 
$100,000. Tne allocation of funds is on a 
first-come, first-served basis, with no require- 
ment for equal distribution throughout the state. 

Environmentally-Endangered Lands Program . This 
program, established by the Land Conservation Act 
of 197 2, provides the authority for the state to 
conserve and protect environmentally-unique and 
irreplaceable lands which are valued ecological 
resources to the state. Lands which are classi- 
fied in this category may be purchased by the 
state . 

The determination of whether land is environ- 
mentally-unique and irreplaceable is based on an 
examination of the following: 

li the type, variety, extent, distribution, and 
condition of the key elements within the pro- 
posed acquisition area; 

2) the relative scarcity of the key elements, 
within the immediate vicinity, the general 
region, and the state as a whole; 

3) the importance of the area to the total en- 
vironmental system within the immediate 
vicinity, the general region, and the state 
as a whole; 



-152- 



4) knowledge of the past, existing, planned or 
projected activities of man which might di- 
rectly or indirectly affect any or all of 
its key elements; and 

5) the vulnerability of the key elements which 
might be affected. 

Based upon the analyses of ecological value, vulnera- 
bility and endangerment, a determination shall be made 
as to: 

1) whether environmental protection is warranted, 
and the degree of urgency for that protection; 

2) what the specific objectives for protection 
should be ; 

3) what extent local, state, or Federal regulatory 
measures could realistically be applied to a- 
chieve the identified objectives for protection 
of the area; 

4) whether the area, or portions thereof, should be 
considered "qualified" for acquisition as the only 
effective means of insuring the protection ob- 
jectives, and 

5) the type and degree of future management practices 
necessary to achieve and/or to maintain the en- 
vironmental protection purposes for which the land 
should be acquired. 



-153- 



After these determinations are made, the land in 
question, if favorably considered for purchase by 
the state, is ranked on a priority basis with other 
environmentally-endangered lands. 

Funds for this program are provided by a $240 million 
bond issue passed in 1972. $200 million of this bond 
issue is available for the purchase of environmentally- 
endangered lands. 

Local Funding 

At the local level, there are two basic sources of 
public funds for open space and recreational purposes: 
general fund appropriations and bond issues. 

Bond issues enable community residents to obtain public 
facilities when needed as well as provide an equitable 
means of support by both present and future users. The 
three primary types of bonds used by local governments 
are: general obligation bonds; limited obligation bonds 
and revenue bonds . 

General Obligation Bonds . General obligation 
bonds, also known as guaranteed bonds or full- 
faith bonds, are obligations which guarantee 
payment of interest and principal by the local 
government selling the bonds. The full re- 
sources and taxing powers of the government are 
irrevocably pledged to meet debt payments. 



-154- 



Limited Obligation Bonds . Limited obligation 
bonds, often called tax bonds, are obligations 
secured by a pledge of the proceeds of a spe- 
cific tax or revenues of a specified fund. 
These bonds carry no further guarantee or 
commitment by the issuing government in the 
event tnat pledgea revenues prove inadequate 
to meet debt service. 

Revenue Bonds . Revenue bonds are obligations to 
finance allegedly self-supporting and self- 
sustaining user-free facilities. The bonds 
are secured only by the fees, charges, and other 
earnings of the project. Should these earnings 
prove inadequate, the sole remedy of the bond 
holders is to require an adjustment in fees 
and charges designed to improve earnings. 

Bonds are generally issued in $1,000 or $5,000 
denominations. This is called the "face amount" 
or "par value" of the bond. A majority of 
issues are sold in serial form, meaning that 
the issue has maturities scheduled annually 
or semi-annually over a period of years. Other 
issues, known as "term" bonds, have only a 
single maturity date and the full amount is 
payable on that date. 

Summary 

It is apparant that there are a variety of potential ways 
and means available to provide open spaces and recreation 
sites. It should be noted, however, that with regard 
to local government funds, the needs are many--social 



-155- 



services, road construction and maintenance, and 
payrolls, for example. 

At the Federal and state levels, the competition 
for categorical grant money is strong between 
various local governments. Additionally, the levels 
of funding and even duration of existence are often 
in questions. For example, as of the time of this 
writing, the Department of Housing and Urban De- 
velopment's Legacy of Parks Program is under mori- 
torium and may be replaced by Special Revenue Sharing 
legislation. 

Implementation 

In order to implement the 1980 program, it is necessary 
to establish priorities among the various park sites and 
open spaces and to identify the method of attainment or 
protection and sources of funds, if required. In order 
to assist local governments in these efforts, the various 
open space systems which merit the most consideration 
are identified as well as methods of control and sources 
of funds where applicable. 

For park sites, priorities within each category of park 
are established; approximate size, estimated cost, and 
recommended sources of funds are provided. 

Major Open Space Systems 

Santa Fe River - In order to preserve this 
unique wild river from the encroachment of 
continued development, it is recommended that 
it be designated as an area of critical state 
concern and be regulated by the Alachua County 
Board of County Commissioners. 



-156- 



Gum Root Sv/amp - In order to protect this area 
and to provide an opportunity for some limited, 
low-key recreation activities sucn as hiking 
and nature study, it is recommended that this 
area be designated as a Wildlife Management Area, 

Hogtown Creek Drainage Basin - To provide the 
best possible benefit to the public, it is re- 
commended that a multiple-use concept be adapted 
to the entire basin. Outstanding recreational 
potential exists, particularly around Lake 
Kanapaha and Split Rock Lake west of Interstate 
75 and also east of Interstate 75 around Terwilliger 
Pond. This concept should include a variety of re- 
creational experiences combined with conservation 
programs while having the central purpose of flood 
control. Parks of varying sizes could be uti- 
lized to provide the typical recreation activities 
such as camping, fishing, picnicking, boating, 
nature study, and field sports. 

The Gainesville Flood Control Ordinance defines types 
of compatible construction and general activities suit- 
able to such areas. These recommendations should be 
followed throughout the drainage basin. Additional 
areas, some of which are to be defined by the afore- 
mentioned studies, critical to flood alleviation, should 
be purchased V7hsre possible at places along the entire 
length of the creek and employed in the entire recreational 
scheme . 



_i 



157- 



A good conservation program is essential in order 
to preserve existing wildlife and improve and enhance 
water quality throughout the basin. The preservation 
of what remains of this open space is of the highest 
priority. Every method of control, including purchase, 
lease, easement rights, flood control legislation, and 
conservation programs, should be employed. Specifics 
regarding a regional park in the Lake Kanapaha area 
are provided under the regional park section of this 
198 program. 

San Felasco Hammock - The San Felasco Hammock has 
been proposed to the State Department of Natural 
Resources for purchase under the Environmentally- 
Endangered Lands Program. This proposal has been 
instigated by the Alachua Audubon Society and 
endorsed by professionals, laymen, elected offi- 
cials, and numerous conservation groups. Experts 
from various fields concerned with the physical 
environment who are familiar with the hammock 
have written on its value to mankind from re- 
creation to aquifer recharge, and conclude that 
this unique and valuable tract of land should be 
owned, maintained, and developed in the public 
interest. 

The Regional Planning Council has endorsed the 
Audubon Society's proposal and concurs that this 
open space system is appropriate for state purchase 
under the Environmentally-Endangered Lands Program. 



-158- 



Watermelon Pond - The current threat to this open space 
system is not great enough to warrant formally placing 
it under public stewardship; nor is such action neces-- 
sary to achieve a substantial recreation benefit from 
the area. It is recommended, however, that the area 
be kept under close surveillance and protective measures 
initiated at the first evidence of a threat to its 
environmental well-being. Additionally, it is re- 
commended that enough land be purchased in this area 
to develop a regional park. This proposal is dis- 
cussed under the following section of this report. 

Poe Springs - It is recommended that this area be 
purchased and used as a public park in a manner 
compatible with the natural limitations of the area. 
This recommendation is detailed in the district parks 
section of this report. 

Regional Parks 

Included in the 198 program are two regional parks: one 
in the Lake Kanapaha-Split Rock Lake portion of the Hogtown 
Creek drainage basin; and the other in the Watermelon Pond 
area. The establishment of these two sites would easily 
meet the minimum needs for regional park facilities in 198 
as established in the previous analyses. 

Lake Kanapaha-Split Rock Lake Regional Park (Site Rl ^ 
Figure . This park is deemed to be of the highest 
priority of any regional park needs within the county. 
If acquired and developed, this park would serve the 
regional park needs of the western portion of the 
Gainesville Urban Area, as well as part of the segment 



-159- 



of the remainder of the county. Lake Kanapaha and 
some adjoining property has recently been purchased 
by local government primarily in conjunction with 
the construction of the new Kanapaha Wastewater 
Treatment Plant. 

The purchase of additional land around Lake Kanapaha, 
the Split Rock Lake area, and certain easement rights 
to allow their interconnection is recommended. Such 
a purchase would provide the resouces for an excellent 
regional park. 

This would require the purchase of approximately 200 acres 
(to include Split Rock Lake) at an estimated cost of 

$450,000 to include easement rights. Approximately 

50% of this cost could be funded by state and Federal 
programs, with the Alachua County Commission funding 
the remainder. Currently, applications for funding 
through the Legacy of Parks Program and the Land and 
Water Conservation Program are pending. The funding 
formulae could be revised, depending on the outcome 
of these applications, to include the funding through 
the Florida Recreation Development Assistance Program. 

Watermelon Pond Regional Park (Site R2 , Figure . This 
park site is regarded as the second highest priority 
regional park site. If this park site were acquired, 
it would serve to provide recreation opportunities to 
the southwest portion of the county, as well as pave 
the way for protection for the entire Watermelon Pond 
ecosystem. 



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10. Proposed Major Open Space 

Systens and Regional Parks, 
Alachua County 



of the remainder of the county. Lake Kanapaha and 
some adjoining property has recently been purchased 
by local government primarily in conjunction with 
the construction of the new Kanapaha Wastewater 
Treatment Plant. 

The purchase of additional land around Lake Kanapaha, 
the Split Rock Lake area, and certain easement rights 
to allow their interconnection is recommended. Such 
a purchase would provide the resouces for an excellent 
regional park. 

This would require the purchase of approximately 200 acres 
(to include Split Rock Lake) at an estimated cost of 

$450,000 to include easement rights. Approximately 

50% of this cost could be funded by state and Federal 
programs, with the Alachua County Commission funding 
the remainder. Currently, applications for funding 
through the Legacy of Parks Program and the Land and 
Water Conservation Program are pending. The funding 
formulae could be revised, depending on the outcome 
of these applications, to include the funding through 
the Florida Recreation Development Assistance Program. 

Watermelon Pond Regional Park (Site R2 , Figure . This 
park site is regarded as the second highest priority 
regional park site. If this park site were acquired, 
it would serve to provide recreation opportunities to 
the southwest portion of the county, as well as pave 
the way for protection for the entire Watermelon Pond 
ecosystem. 



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I Clay County 



,.;;> MAJOR OPEN SPACES 

I -k PROPOSED REGIONAL PARK 

-k EXISTING REGIONAL PARK 

m PROPOSED DISTRICT PARK 

Mphu Numt-rii D.-^itfnaliuiw IK :t. I) t. <-tr-l 
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Alachua Countv 
Scale: 1" = I mile 

North Central Florida Regional 
==;:j^^ Planning Council 

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10. Proposed Major Open Space Systems and 
Regional Parks, Alachua County 



It is recommended that at least 100 acres be purchased, 
preferably in the northwest area along State Road 337 . 
Efforts should be made to tie the new area in with 
the ten-acre site which the county already owns. 
Estimated cost for this site is $100,000. Partial 
funding (50%) may be obtained from the state through 
the Land and Water Conservation Fund, with Alachua 
County funding the remainder. 

District Parks 

Included in the 198 program are recommendations pertinent 
to six district park sites. These recommendations include 
enlargements of existing parks as well as new sites. These 
park sites are discussed in order of recommended priority. 

Meadowbrook Park (Site Dl , Figure) . As there exists a 
substantial need for a first class district park in the 
southeast section of the Gainesville Urban Area, the 
enlargement of the purchase of 12 acres of land at an 
estimated cost of $33,000. Funding could include fi- 
nancial assistance from the Department of Housing and 
Urban Development through the Legacy of Parks Program 
or Community Development Revenue Sharing, if passed. 
Local funds should be provided by the City of Gainesville 

Rawlings Area Park (Site D2, Figure) . In order to pro- 
vide district park facilities for the northeastern 
section of the Gainesville Urban Area, the purchase of 
at least 25 acres in the area of Marjorie K. Rawlings 
School is recommended. The size of this site could be 
reduced if the site is contiguous to the school property. 
Estimated cost is $75,000; and, again, financial assist- 
ance should be sought from the Department of Housing 



-162- 



and Urban Development with local funds provided by 
the City of Gainesville. ,. 

Buchholz Area Park (Site 03^ Figure) . One of the 
most rapidly expanding areas of the Gainesville 
Urban Area is the northwest. To meet current and 
future needs of this area, a park site should be 
purchased in this area. It is recommended that 
at least 25 acres be purchased for this site. 
Estimated cost for a 25-acre site is $125,000. 
As this area is outside the corporate limits of 
Gainesville, this site should be purchased by 
the county with financial assistance from the 
Bureau of Outdoor Recreation. 

Northwood Area Park (Site D4 , Figure) . The provision 
of a district park site to service this portion of 
the Gainesville Urban Area is necessary to provide 
adequate recreation facilities to this rapidly de- 
veloping area. This area is currently without any 
recreation facilities, except for the Northwood 
Recreation Center, the status of which is constantly 
in doubt. Forty acres, currently owned by the county, 
could be used for this site, thereby eliminating site- 
purchase cost. This course of action is recommended. 

Poe Springs, (Site Dl, Figure) . This area is recommended 
for public ownership in order to protect its natural 
beauty and to improve its maintenance. The purchase 
of 37 acres, currently under single ownership, is 
recommended. Estimated cost is $60,000. The character 
of this area makes it a prime candidate for funding 



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under the Florida Recreation Development Assistance 
Program. This would require only a $5,000 local 
contribution to match $55,000 in state funds. 

Westside Park (Site D5, Figure) . This park, easily the 
most popular district park in the county, should be en- 
larged to meet current and projected user occasions. 
Current plans for the City of Gainesville Recreation 
Department call for the construction of a gymnasium, 
amphitheater, additional handball courts, and ad- 
minitrative offices at this park. To provide 
room for these facilities and expanded areas for passive 
recreation, the purchase of an additional 50 acres 
is recommended. The cost for such an expansion is 
estimated at $200,000. Federal assistance through 
the Legacy of Parks program, if it is reinstated, 
is recommended. 



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11. Service Areas, District 
Parks, Alachua County 



under the Florida Recreation Development Assistance 
Program. This would require only a $5,000 local 
contribution to match $55,000 in state funds. 

Westside Park (Site D5, Figure) . This park, easily the 
most popular district park in the county, should be en- 
larged to meet current and projected user occasions. 
Current plans for the City of Gainesville Recreation 
Department call for the construction of a gymnasium, 
amphitheater, additional handball courts, and ad- 
minitrative offices at this park. To provide 
room for these facilities and expanded areas for passive 
recreation, the purchase of an additional 50 acres 
is recommended. The cost for such an expansion is 
estimated at $200,000. Federal assistance through 
the Legacy of Parks program, if it is reinstated, 
is recommended. 



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11. Service Areas, District Parks, Alachua County 



WATER AND SEWER FACILITIES 



The availability and quality of water and sewer utilities 
are an integral part of community facilities planning. To- 
gether, and sometimes individually, their availability deter- 
mines the type, density, and even the occurrence of growth, 
as well as greatly influencing that condition referred to as 
"quality of life". 

Wide recognition of the need for water and sewer faci- 
lities in planning and development activities, as well as the 
requirements of the Department of Housing and Urban Develop- 
ment and the Environmental Protection Agency, prompted the 
Council to jointly prepare a Water and Sewer Development Plan 
for Alachua County with the engineering firm, Black, Crow, 
and Eidsness, Incorporated, of Gainesville, Florida. Com- 
pleted in January, 1974, the study was funded in part by 
the Department of Housing and Urban Development and also 
received substantial support from the Gainesville-Alachua 
County Regional Electric, Water and Sewer Utilities Board, 
This study was prepared to aid in the systematic and ra- 
tional development of water and sanitary facilities in 
Alachua County and is summarized herein. 

In this report all existing facilities were inventoried, 
and by using background data, trends and evaluations, the needs 
of the county were projected through the year 1990, and a plan 
for the efficient and orderly development of water and sewer 
facilities outlined. All available background information as 
recent as October 1, 197 3, was compiled as base data for this 
study. 



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WATER FACILITIES 

As in many expanding areas the need for water facilities 
for an often widely dispersed population has led to the instal- 
lation and proliferation of numerous private water supply 
facilities. There are presently, in Alachua County, approxi- 
mately 140 privately owned utility systems, each serving 25 
or more people. Of these, 38 are trailer parks with privately 
owned water systems serving 3,500 people. Another 18 systems 
offer water for sale. 

While most of these facilities are capable of meeting 
average demands, most might be considered marginal facilities. 
Many are not capable of meeting the anticipated peak demands 
of 1990, provide no back-up facilities, have inadequately 
sized water mains, especially for fire protection, and have 
limited storage capacities. 

In terms of adequacy, as it pertains to public water 
supply, both conditions of quantity and quality must be 
considered. In terms of quality, there are basically two 
types of water being supplied to Alachua County residents; 
treated or non- treated. Treated water is supplied by the 
cities of High Springs and Gainesville in the form of soft- 
ended and filtered water. All of the other incorporated 
municipalities, with the exception of LaCrosse, pump their 
water from deep wells and chlorinate prior to pumping into 
the public distribution system. Waters supplied by all 
municipalities in Alachua County with the exception of 
LaCrosse are considered to be of acceptable quality. The 
waters treated by the lime/soda softening process utilized 
by Gainesville and High Springs are of better quality than 
those supplied by the other six municipalities. However, 



-167- 



these six facilities meet the requirements of the county 
health department for public water supply. In regard to 
adequacy of quantity, particularly in terms of satisfying 
requirements for peak demands and fire protection, all 
municipalities should strive to achieve acceptable standards. 

In an effort to devise the most economically feasible 
plan for providing an adequate water supply of softened water 
to each municipality in the county, the plan evaluated al- 
ternative systems whereby each community might be served 
through a regional plant located in the Gainesville metro- 
politan area. Based on this preliminary evaluation it was 
shown that it is apparently feasible for all those munici- 
palities in Alachua County except for Hawthorne, Waldo, and 
LaCrosse which was marginal, to receive treated water from 
a central regional water plant. 

General recommendations which may be drawn from or 
added to those in the Water and Sewer Development Plan are 
as follows: 

1. It is recommended that the City of LaCrosse retain 
a suitable consulting engineer to compile a pre- 
liminary engineering report for a public water 
supply for that city. 

2. It is recommended that those communities lacking 
back-up or auxiliary wells including an auxiliary 
power system, consider the installation of such 
facilities to insure a continued and adequate water 
supply under any circumstances. 



-168- 



3. Each municipality should undertake, if not currently 
underway, a program designed to maintain continued 
system improvements whereby old or deteriorating 
water lines, additional fire hydrants, and water 
supply equipment is replaced or kept in good repair. 

4. Those communities contemplating providing softened 
water to their citizens should investigate the 
economics of receiving softened water from the 
regional water plant near Gainesville prior to 
constructing their own facility. 

5. In those communities where there are no adequate 
water system maps, every effort should be made to 
collect existing information from knowledgeable 
persons to record the location of "lost" water 
lines, etc., or as located noted so that master 
maps for future reference can be compiled showing 
the location of fire hydrants, the location and 
size of water lines, and other pertinent water 
system information. 



SEWER FACILITIES 

The improper disposal of cumulative amounts of domestic 
waste is one of the major factors threatening the health, 
comfort and safety of individuals in areas where sewerage 
systems are not available or are inadequate. It has been 
recognized for many years that adequate waste disposal is 
not only essential to public health, but also to protect 
natural resources and avoid the creation of a public nuisance. 
Because the residents of Alachua County and Florida as a whole 



-169- 



depend upon ground water for public water supplies, it is 
important for even small communities to seek other approved 
methods of waste disposal if septic tanks are inadequate 
for waste disposal purposes. 

Although there are approximately 8 8 sewage treatment 
facilities in Alachua County, only two of the nine incor- 
porated municipalities provide any type of sewage collection 
and disposal. Adequate wastewater collection, treatment and 
disposal is provided only by the City of Gainesville. The 
City of Waldo, the only other city providing sanitary faci- 
lities, possesses a collection system but a rather inadequate 
treatment system. The remaining eight incorporated munici- 
palities have either privies or septic tanks. By far the 
majority of treatment facilities are being used by relatively 
large flow users such as hotels, restaurants and service 
stations, all of which are served by small package treatment 
plants . 

Because of the high costs and complexity of sewerage 
systems, the implementation of publicly owned centralized 
sewerage facilities has lagged far behind the construction 
of relatively cheaper and simpler water supply facilities. 

The sewer facilities plan as outlined in the Water 
and Sewer Development Plan for Alachua County evaluated the 
possibility of centralization of wastewater treatment faci- 
lities. Six alternatives are evaluated ranging from a com- 
pletely centralized regional system to individual installations 
in each municipality. In summary, this analysis indicated that, 
through the 1990 planning period, the installation of centrally 
located (Gainesville) wastewater treatment facilities is not 
cost effective when compared to individual municipal systems. 



-170- 



However, the report also points out that for the cities of 
Archer, Newberry, High Springs, and Alachua the decision 
on pumping into a regional system versus construction of 
their own facilities appears marginal, therefore, both eco- 
nomic, and peripheral concerns (politics, etc.) should be 
considered when in preliminary design stages. 

The following recommendation are summarized from the 
Recommended Sewer Development Plan of the Water and Sewer 
Development Plan for Alachua County. 

1. The cities of Waldo and Hawthorne need to have 
their preliminary engineering report updated and 
consideration given to financing these systems. 

At this time, and within the 1990 planning period, 
it appears more economical for individual treat- 
ment facilities to be located in these communities 
than to pump to a regional plant. 

2. Micanopy and LaCrosse need to have preliminary 
engineering reports prepared. 

3. For the communities of Archer, Newberry, High 
Springs, and Alachua, it appears somewhat marginal 
in annual cost between the alternates of individual 
treatment versus pumping to the Kanapaha Regional 
Plant. Consideration toward pumping to the regional 
plant should be given prior to construction of indi- 
vidual plants. 

4. The smaller, rural, unincorporated communities should 
give consideration to a preliminary engineering report 
to determine the feasibility of provisions of sanitary 



-171- 



facilities and water facilities. The community 
of Melrose should give this serious consideration 
due to population density and proximity to Santa 
Fe Lake . 

5. Since Newberry and Alachua have construction 
drawings underway for their systems, another con- 
sideration which might be given would be the in- 
stallation of interim packaged plants that are 
portable . 

These portable plants could then be easily moved 
and reinstalled in other expanding areas of need 
when the existing user diverted flow to the Gaines- 
ville regional plants. 

6. Prior to construction, future wastewater treatment 
facilities should be reviewed by the Regional 
Planning Council and the Regional Utilities Board. 

Much of the preliminary engineering and planning advocated 
by these recommendations is provided for in Section 201 of 
Public Law 92-500, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act 
Amendments of 1972. At the present time the Gainesville- 
Alachua County Regional Electric, Water and Sewer Utilities 
Board is sponsoring an application to the U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency to acquire funds to conduct such an en- 
gineering and planning study for Alachua County. 

An integral part of the federal requirements for such a 
grant is full participation in the planning and decision making 
process by all units of local governments in the study area. 
Therefore, the opportunity for each municipality to be a part of 
this study is provided. In addition, it provides a cost-free 



-172- 



opportunity for each municipality participating to realize needed 
planning and improved eligibility to receive federal grants for 
subsequent wastewater facilities planned for the future. 



-173- 



SOLID WASTE 



The information presented in this section is drawn 
from the report entitled Solid Waste Management^ Phase I 
and Phase II . 

Alachua County has been fairly progressive in its 
effort to continually improve the solid waste collection 
and disposal practices. The Gainesville Municipal Waste 
Conversion Authority was organized in 1967 and supervised 
the operation of the area's first compost plant. When 
this effort failed, due to economic reasons after only one 
year, county officials organized the Waste Management Ad- 
ministering Board which has since made substantial progress 
in upgrading the quality and operation of sanitary landfills 
throughout the county. 

In September, 1972, an agreement was entered into by 
the North Central Florida Regional Planning Council and the 
local firm of Environmental Science and Engineering, Inc. 
to conduct a solid waste management study of Alachua County, 
Florida. This study was financially aided through a federal 
grant from the Department of Housing and Urban Development, 
as well as the Waste Management Administering Board of Alachua 
County. This study was to be conducted in two phases. Phase 
I of this study was completed in July, 197 3 and includes a 
comprehensive assessment of solid waste generation, storage, 
collection, transportation, processing, and ultimate disposal. 
Emphasis was placed on identifying and documenting the exist- 
ing solid waste management system as well as providing pro- 
jections and recommendations for future solid waste collection 



-174- 



and disposal requirements. Phase II of this study, completed 
in July, 197 4, includes the development of a county-wide 
master plan intended to provide steps for immediate and 
long-range implementation of solid waste management in 
Alachua County. 



Solid Waste Collection 

Solid waste collection is by far the most complex and 
costly part of the total solid waste management system. It 
is estimated that over 3/4 of the funds available for solid 
waste management go toward the collection and transportation 
of waste materials to the place of ultimate disposal. 

There are a wide variety of collection practices that 
might exist in any community. These differences depend 
upon a large number of factors related to a particular 
community and include differences in the types and amounts 
of waste material to be handled, levels of service to be 
provided, the availability of funds, the municipal and 
public attitudes, and local environmental and physiographic 
conditions. 

Solid waste collection services are provided by nine 
organizations within Alachua County. The largest includes 
the City of Gainesville, the Alachua County Refuse Collection 
Department, and the University of Florida, respectively. Six 
smaller communities within the county each have one packer 
truck which provides adequate collection capacity for their 
respective communities. 



-175- 



Solid Waste Disposal 

Until recently, the primary means of solid waste 
disposal in Alachua County has been by open dump, in- 
adequate sanitary landfills, and a worthwhile attempt 
at composting which ended in economic failure. At the 
present time, there are only four authorized areas for 
solid waste disposal within Alachua County. All four 
are modern, efficient sanitary landfills operated by 
the Waste Management Administering Board of Alachua County. 
One of these landfills is located in each quadrant of the 
county, and together serve as the disposal site for by far 
the greater amounts of domestic and municipal solid waste 
being generated in the county. Virtually all of the muni- 
cipalities, the University of Florida, and the Alachua 
County Refuse Collection Department utilize these landfills 
for refuse disposal. 

The Waste Management Administering Board also conducts 
a program to remove abandoned automobiles throughout the 
county. Since its initiation in December of 1973, this 
program has met with favor among those participating. Over 
1,200 abandoned vehicles have been tagged throughout the 
county and approximately 450 collected to date. 



Solid Waste Management 

The primary objective of Phase II of the Solid Waste 
Management Study for Alachua County is to formulate a com- 
prehensive solid waste management plan. In general, it in- 
cludes a plan for overall program management, operational 
improvements, equipment maintenance, and work force organi- 
zation. 



-176- 



Included in this report is a computer based analysis 
of solid waste transportation, prbcessing, and disposal 
alternatives. Four potential transfer station sites lo- 
cated in the Gainesville Metropolitan Area were selected 
for analysis and, combined with various alternatives for 
equipment utilization, evaluated on the basis of their 
ability to increase efficiency in transporting solid waste 
from the metropolitan area to the Southwest Landfill lo- 
cated near Archer. 

An economic analysis of transfer station operation 
was conducted to evaluate costs associated with transfer 
station operation versus direct haul by collection trucks 
to the Southwest Landfill under various collection methods, 
i.e., the existing back yard collection method compared 
to curbside collections. In addition, collection alterna- 
tives were evaluated to assess the respective advantages, 
or disadvantages, of expanding the current four-day collection 
week to a six-day week in order to achieve an overall in- 
crease in efficiency in the utilization of manpower and equip- 
ment. It was found that the available alternatives are high- 
ly dependent on intermediate operation methods selected by 
the major collectors. Therefore, a decision tree of alterna- 
tive systems was devised to present a systematic decision 
pattern based upon intermediate decisions selected by local 
authorities . 

In a consideration of disposal alternatives, sanitary 
landfills were described and data of the respective life 
expectancies of all four sanitary landfills in Alachua County 
presented. According to the discussion of disposal methods, 
incineration was shown to be a viable alternative to solid 
waste processing and disposal provided steaiji produced as a 
by-product could be utilized by the Regional Utilities Board 



-177- 



as a supplementary power source for their electrical 
generating facilities. 



Summary and Conclusions 

In drawing from Phase I of the Solid Waste Management 
Study for Alachua County, it can be concluded that: 

1. There is no single unified solid waste management 
organization providing services to all the resi- 
dents of Alachua County. At the present time 
there are 11 separate organizations providing 
solid waste management, collection, transportation, 
or disposal services in Alachua County. Among these 
organizations, service levels and rates are not uni- 
form, methods of funding vary, ordinances where pro- 
vided are not uniform, and except for the ten year 
disposal plan of the Waste Management Administering 
Board, there appear to be no long-range plans in 
effect. 

2. From a total of 16 major disposal sites in use by 
the respective organizations, prior to 1973, there 
are now only four approved sanitary landfills and 
one non-putrescible solid waste landfill in operation 
within the county. The solid waste management 
system appears to be functioning adequately although 
there is considerable room for improvement. 



-178- 



3. The per capita solid waste generation rate is now 
estimated to be 4.9 pounds per day, producing a 
quantity of 99,650 tons per year. By 1995 each 
person is expected to generate 7.7 pounds per 
day which will result in 165,800 tons per year or 
1,721,000 cubic yards of solid waste per year re- 
quiring disposal. Although standard containers 
are in general use in Alachua County, strict 
uniformity is not required in all places. The 
use of on-site incineration is decreasing due to 
the enforcement of more stringent air pollution 
control laws. 

4. Although nine organizations provide collection 
services within Alachua County at the present 
time, there appears to be no attempt to region- 
alize this service under one unified organization. 

5. All but three collection organizations provide the 
minimum recommended collection frequency of two 
times per week. Both the curbside and back yard 
methods of solid waste collection are utilized in 
Alachua County. Curbside pick-up is by far the 
least expensive and most efficient location for 
pick-up. 

In summary, the Phase II report includes recommendations 
for a solid waste master plan for Alachua County. Operational 
improvements which may be readily implemented are described 
under the short-range plan and include: 

1. Upgrading all accident safety programs to reduce 
losses due to lost work time and subsequent effi- 
ciency and economic losses. 



-179- 



2. Replacement of equipment on a frequency based on 
useful life expectancies and a regular scheduled 
maintenance program for each vehicle. 

3. Purchase of semi-portable scales to more equitably 
charge for solid waste disposal and possible im- 
plementation of mandatory collection in the county 
to reduce delinquency rates from non-payment of 
bills. 

The long-range plan for Alachua County includes such 
recommendations which involve major changes in routing and/ 
or operational structure and include: 

1. Overall system recommendations which call for 
the adoption of a regional solid waste agency 
and a continuing planning effort to identify 
and investigate solid waste processing, col- 
lection and disposal alternatives for their 
suitability to Alachua County. 

2. Disposal system recommendations which include a 
recommendation that the manufacturer's engineers 
meet with the plant engineers from the Regional 
Utilities Board to determine whether the quality 
and rate of generation of steam produced by in- 
cineration is compatible with the generating equip- 
ment currently in use. 

3 . Correction system recommendations which include a 
call for the adoption of the curbside method of 
collection and the realization of a six-day per 
week collection system contingent on the continued 
attractiveness of incineration. 



-180- 



DRAINAGE 



A Comprehensive Water Management and Flood Plain 
Designation Plan is currently being prepared for the 
Gainesville Metropolitan Area by the Gainesville office 
of Sverdrup and Parcel, Incorporated. This study is 
being funded by the City of Gainesville and Alachua 
County and sponsored by the North Central Florida 
Regional Planning Council. 

The purpose of this study is to utilize all 
available informatiom, including supplementary data collected 
through a field monitoring program, to determine the flood 
channel area for streams and the flood-plain areas for 
streams and depressions. This study will encompass the 
135 square mile area around Gainesville referred to as , 
the Gainesville Metropolitan Area, and will employ com- 
puter simulation models to predict flood limits under 
varying conditions. In addition, the study will present 
a definite water management plan which will assist the 
County and the City of Gainesville in guiding future de- 
velopment, preparing land use plans, and providing for 
the best land management of flood prone areas. 

Progress to date included the preparation of a 
special study for an 8,500 acre area north of the City of 
Gainesville entitled "A Flood Plain and Water Control 
Program for the Headwaters of Little Hatchet, Turkey, Blues, 
and Hogtown Creeks" . The contract with the consultant is 
presented in the Water and Sewer Development Plan for 
Alachua County wherein details of planned preparation are 
outlined. 



-181- 



It is expected that the final report along with 
a full set of maps for the Gainesville Metropolitan Area 
showing flood prone areas will be completed and available 
for distribution in September, 197 4. At the present time, 
only generalized drainage studies have been proposed for 
other areas of Alachua County. The reader is referred to 
the report entitled Overall Program Design, 197 4 by the 
North Central Florida Regional Planning Council for addi- 
tional information on future studies. 



-182- 



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